Physics Final

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SkyRockIt93
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122789
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Physics Final
Updated:
2011-12-11 22:24:32
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physics review final
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review for physics final
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  1. Orders of magnitude
    • powers of ten
    • mult- add exponents
    • div- subtract exponents
    • powers- multiply exponents
  2. S and I Units
    • MKS
    • length- meters
    • mass- kilograms
    • time- seconds
  3. Sig Figs
    • w/ decimal- atlantic
    • w/o decimal- pacific
    • adding/subtracting- smallest decimal place
    • multiply/dividing- smalles # of sig figs
  4. graphs (x,y)
    • x - independent variable
    • y - dependent variable
  5. graph equations
    • Δy/Δx
    • slope=mx+b
    • y-intercept- b=y2-mx2
  6. vector
    • magnitude
    • direction
  7. scalar
    • a # can be - or +
    • ex) time, age, temp
  8. motion diagrams
    • dots closer = slower
    • dots farther apart = faster
  9. average velocity
    • Vavg= Δx / Δt
    • displacement over time
  10. motion with constant accelerations (equations)
    • d=Vit+1/2at2
    • Vf=Vi+at
  11. conservation of energy
    Vf2=Vi2+2aΔx
  12. free fall equations
    • d=Vit+1/2at2
    • Vf=Vi+at
    • Vf2=Vi2+2aΔy
  13. dynamics
    forces that cause motion
  14. Newton's 1st Law
    • "Law of inertia"
    • an object at rest stays at rest
    • an object in motion stays in motion
  15. net force
    act sto change an objects velocity
  16. Newton's 2nd Law
    Fnet=ma [N]
  17. gravitational force
    • Fg
    • attracts
    • between masses
  18. normal force
    • FN
    • perpendicular force between surface and objects resting or moving along it
  19. frictional force
    • Ff
    • parallel force btwn two objects that oppose relative motions
  20. kinetic force
    • if object on surface moving
    • fkkFN
    • µk=coefficient of kinetic friction
  21. static force
    • if object on surface @ rest
    • fssFN
  22. tension force
    • Ft
    • pulls by massless "string"
  23. electromagnetic
    • Fe
    • attractive or repulsive
    • btwn charges
  24. Newton's Third Law
    • "law of action and reaction"
    • a=Fnet/m
  25. mechanical energy
    • kinetic (motion)
    • potential (spring)
    • energy is neither created nor destroyed
    • E=KE+PE
    • KEi + PEi = KEf + PEf
  26. Kinetic energy
    • KE = 1/2mv2
    • KE is scalar
    • measured in joules [J]
  27. Work
    • ΔKE=KEfinal - KEinitial [J]
    • Wg=-ΔPEg
    • work done against gravity = mgΔh
  28. spring force
    • Fs=kx
    • PEs=1/2kx2
  29. gravitational force
    PEg=mgΔh
  30. mechanical energy in terms of gravity
    • mghi + 1/2mvi2 = mghf + 1/2mvf2--->
    • Vf2 = Vi2 - 2g(hf -hi)
    • use in roller coaster examples
  31. Power
    • P = work / time [J/s]
    • Pavg = F * Vavg
  32. conservation of linear momentum
    • P = mv [kg * m/s]
    • Pf = Pi
    • collision of two objects:
    • P1i + P2i = P1f + P2f
    • PT = m1v1 = m2v2
  33. Impulse
    • change in linear momentum
    • =ΔP = Δ(mv)
    • Fnet = ma = m(Δv/t)
    • ΔI = Fnet * Δt
  34. elastic collision
    • momentum and KE is conserved
    • Pf = Pi
    • KEf = KEi
    • for 2 body system:
    • 1/2mvi12 + 1/2mvi22 = 1/2mivf12 + 1/2m2vf22
  35. inelastic collisions
    • see distorting and heating
    • completely inelastic = stick together:
    • V1f = V2f = Vsysf
    • Vf = m1v1i + m2v2i / m1 + m2
  36. newton's law of universal gravitation
    • F = (Gm1m2) / r2
    • G = 6.67 X10-11
    • near the earth- F = (GME) / rE2
  37. Field lines
    • field is strong when lines are closer together
    • trajectories of a test charge
    • field describes the property of space around one object
  38. Bohr model of an atom
    • nucleus = protons and neutrons
    • electrons orbit nucleus
    • fundamental unit of charge - e = 1.6 X10-19
    • neutron = 0
  39. Coulumb's law
    • lFel = (k lq1l lq2l) / r2
    • k = 8.99 X109 [N * m2/c2]
  40. charge by induction (electroscope)
    neg. rod close to top = pos. atoms and the negatively charged particles repel
  41. charging by contact (pith ball)
    neg. rod touches ball, share electrons, bring it back and they repel
  42. electric field
    • E = F / q [N/C]
    • positive - go out
    • negative - go in
    • E = (k lql) / r2
  43. Electric potential
    • field lines are perpendicular to PE lines
    • PEe = kq1q2 / r
    • V = kq / 2 [volts]
  44. Charges in configuration
    • parallel plate capacitor: uniform electric field inside
    • F = -= ΔPE/Δx = qΔV/Δx = qE ->E =-ΔV/Δx
  45. electric currrent
    I = Δq / Δt
  46. direction of current in a circuit
    the direction in which the positive charges flow
  47. work done in a battery
    W = ΔPE = qΔV = ΔqE -> P = IV
  48. Resistance
    • R = ρ (L/A)
    • ρ - resistivity of material
    • L - length of wire
    • A - cross sectional area = ∏r2
  49. Ohm's law
    V = IR
  50. power in an electric current
    • P = W/Δt =ΔqE/Δt = IE
    • P = IV = I2R = V2/R
  51. Series circuit
    • I = I1 = I2 = I3
    • V = V1 + V2 + V3
    • Req = R1 + R2 + R3
  52. parallel circuit
    • I = I1 + I2 + I3
    • V = V1 = V2 = V3
    • 1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3
  53. power in a series circuit
    • P1 = I1V1
    • P2 = I2V2
    • PT = P1 + P2
    • PT = ITVT
  54. power in a parallel circuit
    • PT = ITVT
    • P1 = I1V1
    • P2 = I2V2
    • PT = P1 + P2
    • power = E/t
  55. dipole
    • two charges
    • flow from a postive charge to a negative charge
  56. magnetism
    • N = out
    • S = in
  57. magnitude of a magnet
    • F = qVB
    • q = charge
    • V = velocity
    • B = magnetic field
    • right hand rule:
    • palm = B
    • fingers = V
    • thumb = force
    • ( x= in, ∙ = out )
  58. current in wire
    • force on a current carrying wire- F = ILB sinƟ
    • magnetic field created- B=µiI/2∏d
    • right hanf rule:
    • thumb- direction of current
    • fingers- wrap in direction of field (B)
  59. Solenoid
    • thumb- direction of field
    • fingers- current
    • B = µiIN/L
    • mag B = NµiI/2R
  60. induction
    changing current and Bfield in the primary induces a changing Bfield and current in the secondary
  61. power in the circuits
    • power is the same in both circuits
    • Vp/Vs = Is/Ip
    • Vp/Vs = Np/Ns
    • Is/Ip = Np/Ns
  62. transverse wave
    oscillates perpendicular to direction intensity of the light ray/wave
  63. electromagnetic waves
    • for light- c =λf
    • speed of any wave - V = λf
  64. doppler effect
    • source moving towards observer:
    • fobs > fsource , λobs < λsource = blue shift
    • source moving away from observer:
    • fobs < fsource , λobs > λsource = red shift
  65. law of reflection
    angle of reflection is = to the angle of incidence
  66. reflectio in plane mirror
    • image is upright
    • image is same size
    • image is virtual
    • hi = mho
    • m = -di/do
  67. reflection in concave
    • do>c>f
    • form a real image
    • inverted
    • smaller
    • c>do>f
    • real image
    • inverted
    • larger
    • c>f>do
    • virtual
    • upright
    • larger
  68. reflection in convex
    • virtual image
    • upright
    • smaller
  69. refraction of light
    • V = c/n
    • less dense to more dense->closer to normal
  70. snell's law
    • n1sinƟ1 = n2sinƟ2
  71. critical angle
    • n1>n2, if Ɵ "too big" ->total internal reflection
    • critical angle = sin-1(n2/n1 * sin 90)
  72. converging lenses
    • either a real or a virtual image
    • double convex or plano convex
  73. diverging lenses
    • only virtual images
    • double concave
    • plano concave
  74. refraction in convex lenses
    • do > f
    • real
    • inverted image
    • f>do
    • virtual
    • upright image
  75. refraction in concave lenses
    • do > f
    • upright
    • virtual image
    • f>do
    • upright
    • virtual image
  76. thin lens equations
    • 1/f = 1/do + 1/di
    • m = -di/do
  77. diopter
    • = 1/f
    • two lenses:
    • deffective = d1 + d2
    • feff = 1/deff

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