# Physics Final

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1. Orders of magnitude
• powers of ten
• div- subtract exponents
• powers- multiply exponents
2. S and I Units
• MKS
• length- meters
• mass- kilograms
• time- seconds
3. Sig Figs
• w/ decimal- atlantic
• w/o decimal- pacific
• multiply/dividing- smalles # of sig figs
4. graphs (x,y)
• x - independent variable
• y - dependent variable
5. graph equations
• Δy/Δx
• slope=mx+b
• y-intercept- b=y2-mx2
6. vector
• magnitude
• direction
7. scalar
• a # can be - or +
• ex) time, age, temp
8. motion diagrams
• dots closer = slower
• dots farther apart = faster
9. average velocity
• Vavg= Δx / Δt
• displacement over time
10. motion with constant accelerations (equations)
• d=Vit+1/2at2
• Vf=Vi+at
11. conservation of energy
Vf2=Vi2+2aΔx
12. free fall equations
• d=Vit+1/2at2
• Vf=Vi+at
• Vf2=Vi2+2aΔy
13. dynamics
forces that cause motion
14. Newton's 1st Law
• "Law of inertia"
• an object at rest stays at rest
• an object in motion stays in motion
15. net force
act sto change an objects velocity
16. Newton's 2nd Law
Fnet=ma [N]
17. gravitational force
• Fg
• attracts
• between masses
18. normal force
• FN
• perpendicular force between surface and objects resting or moving along it
19. frictional force
• Ff
• parallel force btwn two objects that oppose relative motions
20. kinetic force
• if object on surface moving
• fkkFN
• µk=coefficient of kinetic friction
21. static force
• if object on surface @ rest
• fssFN
22. tension force
• Ft
• pulls by massless "string"
23. electromagnetic
• Fe
• attractive or repulsive
• btwn charges
24. Newton's Third Law
• "law of action and reaction"
• a=Fnet/m
25. mechanical energy
• kinetic (motion)
• potential (spring)
• energy is neither created nor destroyed
• E=KE+PE
• KEi + PEi = KEf + PEf
26. Kinetic energy
• KE = 1/2mv2
• KE is scalar
• measured in joules [J]
27. Work
• ΔKE=KEfinal - KEinitial [J]
• Wg=-ΔPEg
• work done against gravity = mgΔh
28. spring force
• Fs=kx
• PEs=1/2kx2
29. gravitational force
PEg=mgΔh
30. mechanical energy in terms of gravity
• mghi + 1/2mvi2 = mghf + 1/2mvf2--->
• Vf2 = Vi2 - 2g(hf -hi)
• use in roller coaster examples
31. Power
• P = work / time [J/s]
• Pavg = F * Vavg
32. conservation of linear momentum
• P = mv [kg * m/s]
• Pf = Pi
• collision of two objects:
• P1i + P2i = P1f + P2f
• PT = m1v1 = m2v2
33. Impulse
• change in linear momentum
• =ΔP = Δ(mv)
• Fnet = ma = m(Δv/t)
• ΔI = Fnet * Δt
34. elastic collision
• momentum and KE is conserved
• Pf = Pi
• KEf = KEi
• for 2 body system:
• 1/2mvi12 + 1/2mvi22 = 1/2mivf12 + 1/2m2vf22
35. inelastic collisions
• see distorting and heating
• completely inelastic = stick together:
• V1f = V2f = Vsysf
• Vf = m1v1i + m2v2i / m1 + m2
36. newton's law of universal gravitation
• F = (Gm1m2) / r2
• G = 6.67 X10-11
• near the earth- F = (GME) / rE2
37. Field lines
• field is strong when lines are closer together
• trajectories of a test charge
• field describes the property of space around one object
38. Bohr model of an atom
• nucleus = protons and neutrons
• electrons orbit nucleus
• fundamental unit of charge - e = 1.6 X10-19
• neutron = 0
39. Coulumb's law
• lFel = (k lq1l lq2l) / r2
• k = 8.99 X109 [N * m2/c2]
40. charge by induction (electroscope)
neg. rod close to top = pos. atoms and the negatively charged particles repel
41. charging by contact (pith ball)
neg. rod touches ball, share electrons, bring it back and they repel
42. electric field
• E = F / q [N/C]
• positive - go out
• negative - go in
• E = (k lql) / r2
43. Electric potential
• field lines are perpendicular to PE lines
• PEe = kq1q2 / r
• V = kq / 2 [volts]
44. Charges in configuration
• parallel plate capacitor: uniform electric field inside
• F = -= ΔPE/Δx = qΔV/Δx = qE ->E =-ΔV/Δx
45. electric currrent
I = Δq / Δt
46. direction of current in a circuit
the direction in which the positive charges flow
47. work done in a battery
W = ΔPE = qΔV = ΔqE -> P = IV
48. Resistance
• R = ρ (L/A)
• ρ - resistivity of material
• L - length of wire
• A - cross sectional area = ∏r2
49. Ohm's law
V = IR
50. power in an electric current
• P = W/Δt =ΔqE/Δt = IE
• P = IV = I2R = V2/R
51. Series circuit
• I = I1 = I2 = I3
• V = V1 + V2 + V3
• Req = R1 + R2 + R3
52. parallel circuit
• I = I1 + I2 + I3
• V = V1 = V2 = V3
• 1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3
53. power in a series circuit
• P1 = I1V1
• P2 = I2V2
• PT = P1 + P2
• PT = ITVT
54. power in a parallel circuit
• PT = ITVT
• P1 = I1V1
• P2 = I2V2
• PT = P1 + P2
• power = E/t
55. dipole
• two charges
• flow from a postive charge to a negative charge
56. magnetism
• N = out
• S = in
57. magnitude of a magnet
• F = qVB
• q = charge
• V = velocity
• B = magnetic field
• right hand rule:
• palm = B
• fingers = V
• thumb = force
• ( x= in, ∙ = out )
58. current in wire
• force on a current carrying wire- F = ILB sinƟ
• magnetic field created- B=µiI/2∏d
• right hanf rule:
• thumb- direction of current
• fingers- wrap in direction of field (B)
59. Solenoid
• thumb- direction of field
• fingers- current
• B = µiIN/L
• mag B = NµiI/2R
60. induction
changing current and Bfield in the primary induces a changing Bfield and current in the secondary
61. power in the circuits
• power is the same in both circuits
• Vp/Vs = Is/Ip
• Vp/Vs = Np/Ns
• Is/Ip = Np/Ns
62. transverse wave
oscillates perpendicular to direction intensity of the light ray/wave
63. electromagnetic waves
• for light- c =λf
• speed of any wave - V = λf
64. doppler effect
• source moving towards observer:
• fobs > fsource , λobs < λsource = blue shift
• source moving away from observer:
• fobs < fsource , λobs > λsource = red shift
65. law of reflection
angle of reflection is = to the angle of incidence
66. reflectio in plane mirror
• image is upright
• image is same size
• image is virtual
• hi = mho
• m = -di/do
67. reflection in concave
• do>c>f
• form a real image
• inverted
• smaller
• c>do>f
• real image
• inverted
• larger
• c>f>do
• virtual
• upright
• larger
68. reflection in convex
• virtual image
• upright
• smaller
69. refraction of light
• V = c/n
• less dense to more dense->closer to normal
70. snell's law
• n1sinƟ1 = n2sinƟ2
71. critical angle
• n1>n2, if Ɵ "too big" ->total internal reflection
• critical angle = sin-1(n2/n1 * sin 90)
72. converging lenses
• either a real or a virtual image
• double convex or plano convex
73. diverging lenses
• only virtual images
• double concave
• plano concave
74. refraction in convex lenses
• do > f
• real
• inverted image
• f>do
• virtual
• upright image
75. refraction in concave lenses
• do > f
• upright
• virtual image
• f>do
• upright
• virtual image
76. thin lens equations
• 1/f = 1/do + 1/di
• m = -di/do
77. diopter
• = 1/f
• two lenses:
• deffective = d1 + d2
• feff = 1/deff
 Author: SkyRockIt93 ID: 122789 Card Set: Physics Final Updated: 2011-12-12 03:24:32 Tags: physics review final Folders: Description: review for physics final Show Answers: