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What is epistemology?
The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge, in particular its foundations, scope, and validity
Hard atheism believes..
Gos does not exist
Soft atheism requires..
beliefs, justification, and proof that God does not exist
Scientifically, for proof of God there must be..
- Replication under different conditions
- Filter out what cannot be proven
Lawfully, for proof of God..
- Verdicts must be justified
- Agreement on what counts as evidence
- Together, law and science can create evidence
Why do we need to study knowledge? (PLATO)
- If we believe based on what others tell us, how can we know our sources are accurate and thus our beliefs are accurate?
- Knowledge is not social
Why study knowledge? (Phantom Limb Problem)
If our beliefs are based on sensation, how do we know our sensations correspond to reality?
Senses are decieved - therefore they are not concrete
- We cannot claim to have knowledge because there is no way to confirm that our beliefs are actually true.
- We cannot prove correspondance is necessarily true
Is skepticism self defeating?
How do we KNOW we cannot confirm the truth of our beliefs?
Rationalism believs knowledge..
- Comes from mental insights into the true nature of reality.
- It is either innate to the mind, or proceeses innate ot the mind lead to knowledge
- - PLATO, DESCARTES, KANT
- knowledge comes from sensation
- -LOCKE, HUME
Coherency theory believes a belief is true..
if it makes most coherent the sensations and beliefs we bring to any phenomenon
Pragmatism believes beliefs are true..
- if they allow us to best address and solve problems
- - RORTY
What is true knowledge?
- Justified true belief
- Take it with a grain of salt
Truth is the correspondance
between beliefs and reality
Apodictic knowledge are beliefs
known to be true with certainty
A priori knowledge is acquired
without reference to empirical evidence
A posteriori knowledge is developed
in light of empirical evidence
Innate ideas are fundamental concepts we use
in knowledge that are used by the soul
Descarets believed that an object causes
sense date >mental represenations>beliefs
Descartes concluded that our existence as thinking minds is known..
- we cannot doubt it without contradiction
Descartes beleived that knowing melted wax is the same wax as a candle was showing
- the view that our beliefs map the true properties of the mind independent from reality
- Maybe the devil plants these ideas in us so that our ideas of time are not true of reality
- Knowlede is only in things that are certain
- Cast doubt on all of them
- Our senses fool us
- Logic could be true, but evil could plant these ideas
- So, if it can be knowledge, it can be doubted as therefore isnt a stable foundation for knowledge
Meditation 2 - Descartes
- As I doubt, I cannot doubt myself
- I think therefore I am
- Soul is immarterial
- I can doubt the existence of material things
- I cannot doubt my soul
- Therefore I am immaterial
Meditaiton 3 - GOD EXISTS
- I have the ideas of perfection
- I am not perfect
- Therefore this idea must have come from outside of me
- Not from nature- it's imperfect too
- Must come from being who is perfect
- God is perfect
Meditation 4 - TRUTH AND ERROR
- God is not the deciver - he'd be imperfect
- My soul can have knowledge/will
- Knowledge is limited
- Will is not limited
- Judgement is an act of will people choose to believe is true
- Error is judgement where will is free and what they believe isnt supported by knowledge
Meditation 5 - AREAS OF REALITY
- Res cogito: innate ideas
- Res extensia: world of space/time
- Imagaination: Combo of ideas and the world of space/time
Innate ideas are necessarily true because they cannot be changed at will
- Idea of God is perfection
- What does not exist is imperfect
- God, exists
- He isnt a deceiver -imperfect
- So innate ideas, are not product of deceiving god,
- so they must be true
- I am not made of immaterial because I can take sense perception and form ideas from it
- Ideas come from outside the soul
- My body exists
- So my sense genuine point to an independent existing material world
John Locke Book 1
- Innate principles are stamped on the mind of man
- Soul believes in its begining
- We just "know" some things
- Universal principles are agreed upon
- Argument of universal consent prove innate principles
- Truths must be imprinted on the soul
- It is impossible for something to be/not to be
John Locke Book II
- If the mind is blank, how does it get characters on it?
- BY EXPERIENCE - knowledge is derived from it
- Observations of external sensible objects makes us understand materials of thinking
- Senses convey out perceptions
- Our opinions shape our thoughts -REFLECTION
John Locke Book 8
- Original qualities of the body observe to produce simple ideas
- Secondary qualities - Powers to produce various sensations
- Perceptions allow us to take in stimuli differently
- Abstraction: Idea from general thing becomes representative
Rationsliasm: Plato and Descartes..
Beleive knowledge comes through reason and NOT senesation
Knowledge come sfrom experience
Innate operation of the mind
Objects in the world
Locke believed in the tabula rose whic is
- the blank sheet that lacks consent at birth
- It has no innate knowledge
- Knowledge must come from experience
Deonotology is the study of
Kant rejected which theory?
What is ethics?
Field of study that evaluates actions, intentions, and ways of life, and states of character.