Final study guide.txt

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Final study guide.txt
2011-12-11 18:28:10
Crafton Hills College RESP 130 Final

Crafton Hills College RESP 130 Final
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  1. What are the types of internal energy?
    • 1. potential energy - the energy of position
    • 2. kinetic energy - the energy of motion
  2. Is temperature and kinetic energy of gases are directly or indirectly related?
  3. What is absolute zero?
    Theoretical level or calculated where there would be cessation of kinetic activity of a gas
  4. What is the SI (System International or the International System of units) based on?
    Kelvin, with a zero point equal to absolute zero (0o K). There is 100 degrees between freezing and boiling points of water so it is also called the centigrade scale.
  5. What is the cgs (centimeter-gram-second) system based on?
    Celsius units (o C). It is also a centigrade scale (100 degrees between freezing and boiling points of water). Zero degree Celsius is freezing temperature of water
  6. How do you convert from Celsius to Kelvin?
    • K = C + 273
    • and to get Celsius you do
    • C = K - 273
  7. How do you convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius?
    C = 5/9 (F - 32)
  8. How do you convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit?
    F = (9/5 X C) + 32
  9. What the four main ways that heat transfers?
    • 1. Conduction
    • 2. Convection
    • 3. Radiation
    • 4. Evaporation/Condensation
  10. How does Conduction heat transfer work?
    Heat is directly transferred between hot and cold molecules
  11. How does Convection heat transfer work?
    mixing of fluid molecules at different temperatures
  12. How does Radiation heat transfer work?
    without direct physical contact such as the sun warming the earth
  13. How does Evaporation/Condensation heat transfer work?
    • Vaporization - the change of state from liquid to gas and the process requires heat energy. It must come from its surroundings.
    • �evaporation� - is a form of vaporization where heat is taken from the surrounding air of the liquid, and cools it. Nonheated humidifiers cool the gas above as evaporation occurs.
    • Condensation - is the opposite of evaporation. Gaseous vapor turns back into a liquid and heat must be given back to the surroundings.
  14. What principle explains Buoyancy?
    Archimedes� Principle
  15. What does Archimede's principle explain?
    Archimedes� principle: the buoyant force must equal the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
  16. What is viscocity?
    force that opposes a fluid�s flow; The weaker the cohesive forces the less viscosity and the less opposition to flow. The stronger the forces the greater the viscosity and the more opposition to flow
  17. What is Adhesion/Cohesion?
    • Cohesion is the attraction molecules that are alike.
    • Adhesion is the attraction of molecules that are not
  18. What is surface tension and what happens to alveoli if there is too much of it?
    force exerted by like molecules at a liquid�s surface. It is cohesion. On the surface of a drop, the molecules are attracted to each other and they pull toward each other and inward forming a sphere or drop

    alveoli will collapse
  19. What is La Place's principle and how do you calculate it?
    • Surface tension increases the pressure inside a liquid drop or bubble
    • It is 4(surface tension) divided by the radius
  20. When surface tension increases, what happens to the internal pressure?
  21. When radius increases, what happens to the internal pressure?
  22. What is Absolute humidity?
    the actual amount or weight of water vapor in a gas
  23. What is relative humidity?
    the ratio of a gases actual water vapor content to its saturated capacity at a given temperature
  24. What is Percent Body Humidity?
    ratio of its actual water vapor content to the water vapor capacity in saturated gas at body temperature (37 C).
  25. What is the saturation capacity of the body?
    Saturated gas (capacity) at body temperature is 43.8 mg/L (44 mg/L)
  26. What is the humidity deficit?
    the amount of water vapor that must be added to a gas to increase it to full saturation
  27. What is body humidity deficit?
    the amount of water vapor our body must add to the inspired gas to achieve saturation at body temperature (37 C)
  28. What is the diffusion fo gases?
    process whereby molecules move from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration due to kinetic energy
  29. In a person with a tumor, a narrow area, and you want to deliver medication, what type of gas would you want to use?
    a lighter gas that moves faster, suchas Heliox
  30. Which law pertains to solubility?
    Henry's Law
  31. What is Boyle's law?
    Temperature: P1V1 = P2V2 The volume of a gas varies inversely with its pressure
  32. What is Charle's Law?
    Pressure: V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 The volume of a gas varies directly with changes in temp. (K)
  33. What is Gay-Lussac�s Law?
    Volume: P1 / T1 = P2 / T2 The pressure exerted by a gas varies directly with its absolute temperature
  34. What is the Universal Gas Law?
    P1V1 / T1 = P2V2 / T2
  35. Flow in the respiratory tracts is mostly what?
    Transitional; however, in the upper airways there will be more turbulent flow, and in the lower airways it is laminar
  36. What is the Bernoulli Effect?
    When a fluid flows through a tube of uniform diameter, pressure decreases progressively over the tube length. When the fluid passes through a constriction, the pressure drop is much greater.
  37. How does a venturi work?
    If an open tube is placed distal to the constriction, the negative pressure can pull another fluid into the primary flow stream, this is usually placed at a 15 degree angle
  38. What does ventilation deal with?
    pressure gradients
  39. What are the different pressure gradients?
    • transrespiratory
    • transpulmonary
    • transthoracic
  40. What is the formula for transrespiratory gradient?
    • causes gas to flow into and out of the alveoli during breathing
    • Prs = Palv - Pao
  41. What is the formula for transpulmonary gradient?
    • equals the pressure difference between the alveoli and pleural space
    • PL = Palv - Ppl
  42. What is the formula for transthoracic gradient?
    • pressure across the wall - total pressure necessarey to expand or contract the lungs and chest wall together
    • PW = PPL - Pbs
  43. What is lung compliance?
    distendability of the lung
  44. What is elastance?
    resistance to deformation
  45. What is normal compliance in healthy adults?
    0.2 L/cmH20
  46. What does surfactant do to the lungs?
    lowers surface tension
  47. Compliance, given value of normal , i.e. .2 and .2, combined = what?
  48. What is Total Compliance?
    lung compliance (CL) plus the compliance of the thorax (CT)
  49. What are the two frictional (non elastic) resistances?
    tissue viscous and airway resistance
  50. What is Tissue Viscous Resistance?
    • impedance of motion caused by displacement of tissues during ventilation
    • accounts for 20% of total resistance
  51. What is Airway resistance?
    • resistance due to gas flow through the airways
    • accounts for about 80% of total resistance
  52. What is compliance?
    change in volume / change in pressure
  53. What is airway resistance?
    change in pressure / change in flow
  54. Approximately __% of the resistance to gas flow occurs in the nose mouth and large airways
  55. __% of total resistance to flow is due to airways smaller than 2 mm in diameter
  56. What is equal pressure point (EPP)?
    the transmural pressure drop finally reaches a point where airway pressure and pleural pressure are the same. After this point the airway can collapse
  57. What is Dynamic Compliance?
    • used to assess pressure-volume relationships during breathing (it includes airway resistance).
    • dynamic compliance decreases as the respiratory rate increases
  58. Will COPD increase or decrease compliance?
  59. Will Kyphoscoleosis increase or decrease compliance?
  60. What is the most important indication of ventilation?
  61. Does Minute Ventilation include dead space in the calculation?
    • Yes
    • Minute ventilation = tidal volume x frequency
  62. Does Alveolar Ventilation inculde dead space in the calculation?
    • No
    • Alveolar ventilation = tidal volume x frequency � dead space
  63. What is Tonicity?
    the degree of osmotic pressure exerted by a solution.
  64. What are the different levels of Tonicity?
    • Isotonic: are solutions that have osmotic pressures equal to the average intracellular pressure in the body. This is roughly equivalent to a saline solution (NaCl of 0.9%) This will cause no overall change in cellular water content.
    • Hypertonic: solution are those with higher osmotic pressure or more tonicity. This will �draw� water out of cells.
    • Hypotonic: solution are those with lower osmotic pressure or less tonicity. This will cause water to be absorbed from the solution into cells.
  65. What is a saturated solution?
    has the maximum amount of solute that can be held by a solvent, at a given temperature
  66. What is a supersaturated solution?
    contains more solute than a saturated solution, at the same temperature and pressure
  67. What is osmotic pressure?
    the force produced by the mobility of solvent particles under certain conditions
  68. What is the Ratio Solution way of expressing a solution?
    Ratio solution. The relationship of the solute to the solvent is expressed as a proportion (i.e., 1:100; solute:solvent).
  69. What is the Weight per volume solution (W/V) way of expressing a solution?
    Weight per volume solution (W/V). This is used for solids dissolved in liquids. They are expressed as grams of solute per 100 mL of solution. An example is 5 g of glucose dissolved in 100 mL of solution, here is considered to be a 5% solution.
  70. What is the Percent solution way of expressing a solution?
    Percent solution. This solution is the weight of solute per weight of solution. An example is 5 grams of glucose dissolved in 95 g of water. The glucose is 5% of the total solution weight of 100g (solute + solvent). It is a true percent solution.
  71. What is an acid?
    compound that increase the hydrogen ion concentration when placed in an aqueous solution. It is also a proton donor
  72. What is a base?
    a compound that gives up hydroxyl ions (OH-) when placed into an aqueous solution. It is known as a proton acceptor.
  73. How many nanomoles per liter does water (neutral) have?
  74. A change of 1 pH unit is equivalent to a _______ change in [H+].
  75. A change in pH of 0.3 units equals a ________ change in [H+].
  76. What is mainly responsible for water excretion?
  77. What are the extracellular electrolytes?
    • 1. sodium
    • 2. chloride
    • 3. bicarbonate
  78. What are the intracellular electrolytes?
    • 1. potassium
    • 2. magnesium
    • 3. phosphate
    • 4. sulfate
    • 5. protein
  79. What are the two ways water is replenished?
    • 1. Ingestion - This is the main form of replacement. The average adult drinks 1,500 to 2000 ml of water per day and gets 500 to 600 ml from foods
    • 2. Metabolism - This water comes from the oxidation of fats, carbohydrates, proteins in the body and from the destruction of cells. Normal amount of water produced is 250 ml per day.
  80. How does Insensible water loss occur?
    Skin and Lungs
  81. How does Sensible water loss occur?
    Urine, Intestinal, and Sweat
  82. What are the 7 major electrolytes, their charges, and normal values?
    • Sodium (Na+), 136-145
    • Chloride (Cl-), 98-106
    • Calcium (Ca2+), 4.5 to 5.25 mEq/L
    • Potassium (K+), 3.5-5.0
    • Magnesium (Mg2+), 1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L
    • Phosphate (HPO42-), 1.2 to 2.3 mEq/L
    • Bicarbonate (HCO3-), 22 to 26 mEq/L
  83. What will ionize almost completely in an aqueous solution?
    Strong acid
  84. What will ionize only to a small extent?
    Weak acid or base
  85. What are the buffer systems?
    • "OBE": Open, Bicarbonate, Erythrocyte and Plasma
    • "CNH": Closed, Nonbicarbonate, Hemoglobin/Organic phosphates/Inorganic phosphates/Plasma Proteins
  86. How does the Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation look at pH?
    • the biologic acid-base relationship by looking at one specific component of the system, namely the carbonic acid (H2CO3) to bicarbonate ion (HCO3) relationship
    • it is expressed at have Bicarbonate (kidneys) in the numerator, and CO2 (lungs) in the denominator
  87. What is the following blood gas: pH = 7.25, PaCO2 = 55, Bicarbonate = 20, BD = -4
    Mixed Respiratory and Metabolic Acidosis
  88. In respiratory acidosis (hypoventilation), what will the kidneys do?
    restore pH by reabsorbing bicarbonate
  89. In respiratory alkalosis (hyperventilation), what will the kidneys do?
    eliminate Bicarbonate throuhg urine
  90. In metabolic acidosis what will the lungs do?
  91. In metabolic alkalosis what will the lungs do?
  92. What is the normal Anion Gap range?
  93. Is potassium (K+) taken into account when calculating anion gap?
    no, too small
  94. What does iatrogenic result from?
    the use of diuretics, low-salt diets, and gastric drainage
  95. which reflex is generated by stretch receptors located in the smooth muscle of both large and small airways. In adult, this reflex is activated only by large VT (.800 ml-1.0 L or more).
    Hering-Breuer Inflation Reflex
  96. What does the following describe: Sudden collapse of the lung stimulates strong inspiratory efforts via the vagus nerve. It causes hyperpnea (e.g., pneumothorax)
    Deflation Reflex
  97. What does the following describe: helps with deep breaths during exercise, periodic deep sighs during quiet breathing, and baby�s first breath. The receptors for this reflex stop firing promptly after the volume change occurs so they are called �rapidly adapting receptors�.
    Head's Paradoxical Reflex
  98. What does the following describe: Stimulation can be by inhaled irritants or mechanical factors causing bronchoconstriction, coughing, sneezing, tachypnea, and narrowing of the glottis. They are called vagovagal reflexes which are responsible for laryngospasm, coughing, and slowing of the heart rate. (e.g., airway suctioning, ET intubation, bronchoscopy)
    Irritant Receptors
  99. What does the following describe: found in the lung parenchyma near the pulmonary capillaries. They are stimulated by alveolar inflammation, pulmonary vascular congestion, and edema. When stimulated cause rapid, shallow breathing; a sensation of dyspnea; and expiratory narrowing of the glottis.
    J Receptors
  100. What does the following describe: are in the muscles, tendons, and joints, as well as pain receptors in muscles and skin. They send impulses to the medullary respiratory center to increase inspiratory activity causing hyperpnea. Moving the limbs, slapping or splashing cold water on the skin, and other painful stimuli increase ventilation. May be important in starting and maintaining increased ventilation at the start of exercise.
    Peripheral proprioceptors
  101. What is contained bilaterally in the medulla and how does it regulate breathing?
    Central Chemoreceptors, and they regulate breathing by sensing H+. More H+, increased breathing rates.
  102. Apneustic breathing indicates damage to the _____.
  103. The rhythmic cycle of breathing originates mainly from neurons in the
    Medulla Oblongota
  104. During quiet breathing the inspiratory neurons from the ___ and ___ fire with increasing frequency for approximately _ seconds then they switch off allowing expiration for _ seconds
    DRG; VRG; 2; 3
  105. What is this indicative of: the respiratory rate and tidal volume gradually increase, then gradually decrease to complete apnea which may last several seconds.
    Cheyne-Stokes respiration
  106. What is this indicative of: similar to Cheyne-Stokes except that tidal volumes are of identical depth. It occurs in patients with increased intracranial pressure
    Biot's Respiration
  107. What indicates damage to the pons. It is related to midbrain and upper pons damage associated with head trauma, severe brain hypoxia, or lack of blood flow to the brain. This is gasping inspirations.?
    Apneustic Breathing