Final study guide pt. 1.txt
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What are the types of internal energy?
- 1. potential energy - the energy of position
- 2. kinetic energy - the energy of motion
Is temperature and kinetic energy of gases are directly or indirectly related?
What is absolute zero?
Theoretical level or calculated where there would be cessation of kinetic activity of a gas
What is the SI (System International or the International System of units) based on?
Kelvin, with a zero point equal to absolute zero (0o K). There is 100 degrees between freezing and boiling points of water so it is also called the centigrade scale.
What is the cgs (centimeter-gram-second) system based on?
Celsius units (o C). It is also a centigrade scale (100 degrees between freezing and boiling points of water). Zero degree Celsius is freezing temperature of water
How do you convert from Celsius to Kelvin?
- K = C + 273
- and to get Celsius you do
- C = K - 273
How do you convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius?
C = 5/9 (F - 32)
How do you convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit?
F = (9/5 X C) + 32
What the four main ways that heat transfers?
- 1. Conduction
- 2. Convection
- 3. Radiation
- 4. Evaporation/Condensation
How does Conduction heat transfer work?
Heat is directly transferred between hot and cold molecules
How does Convection heat transfer work?
mixing of fluid molecules at different temperatures
How does Radiation heat transfer work?
without direct physical contact such as the sun warming the earth
How does Evaporation/Condensation heat transfer work?
- Vaporization - the change of state from liquid to gas and the process requires heat energy. It must come from its surroundings.
- �evaporation� - is a form of vaporization where heat is taken from the surrounding air of the liquid, and cools it. Nonheated humidifiers cool the gas above as evaporation occurs.
- Condensation - is the opposite of evaporation. Gaseous vapor turns back into a liquid and heat must be given back to the surroundings.
What principle explains Buoyancy?
What does Archimede's principle explain?
Archimedes� principle: the buoyant force must equal the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
What is viscocity?
force that opposes a fluid�s flow; The weaker the cohesive forces the less viscosity and the less opposition to flow. The stronger the forces the greater the viscosity and the more opposition to flow
What is Adhesion/Cohesion?
- Cohesion is the attraction molecules that are alike.
- Adhesion is the attraction of molecules that are not
What is surface tension and what happens to alveoli if there is too much of it?
force exerted by like molecules at a liquid�s surface. It is cohesion. On the surface of a drop, the molecules are attracted to each other and they pull toward each other and inward forming a sphere or drop
alveoli will collapse
What is La Place's principle and how do you calculate it?
- Surface tension increases the pressure inside a liquid drop or bubble
- It is 4(surface tension) divided by the radius
When surface tension increases, what happens to the internal pressure?
When radius increases, what happens to the internal pressure?
What is Absolute humidity?
the actual amount or weight of water vapor in a gas
What is relative humidity?
the ratio of a gases actual water vapor content to its saturated capacity at a given temperature
What is Percent Body Humidity?
ratio of its actual water vapor content to the water vapor capacity in saturated gas at body temperature (37 C).
What is the saturation capacity of the body?
Saturated gas (capacity) at body temperature is 43.8 mg/L (44 mg/L)
What is the humidity deficit?
the amount of water vapor that must be added to a gas to increase it to full saturation
What is body humidity deficit?
the amount of water vapor our body must add to the inspired gas to achieve saturation at body temperature (37 C)
What is the diffusion fo gases?
process whereby molecules move from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration due to kinetic energy
In a person with a tumor, a narrow area, and you want to deliver medication, what type of gas would you want to use?
a lighter gas that moves faster, suchas Heliox
Which law pertains to solubility?
What is Boyle's law?
Temperature: P1V1 = P2V2 The volume of a gas varies inversely with its pressure
What is Charle's Law?
Pressure: V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 The volume of a gas varies directly with changes in temp. (K)
What is Gay-Lussac�s Law?
Volume: P1 / T1 = P2 / T2 The pressure exerted by a gas varies directly with its absolute temperature
What is the Universal Gas Law?
P1V1 / T1 = P2V2 / T2
Flow in the respiratory tracts is mostly what?
Transitional; however, in the upper airways there will be more turbulent flow, and in the lower airways it is laminar
What is the Bernoulli Effect?
When a fluid flows through a tube of uniform diameter, pressure decreases progressively over the tube length. When the fluid passes through a constriction, the pressure drop is much greater.
How does a venturi work?
If an open tube is placed distal to the constriction, the negative pressure can pull another fluid into the primary flow stream, this is usually placed at a 15 degree angle
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