Final study guide pt. 2.txt

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coreygloudeman
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122811
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Final study guide pt. 2.txt
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2011-12-11 18:29:18
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Crafton Hills College RESP 130 Final pt
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Crafton Hills College RESP 130 Final pt. 2
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  1. What does ventilation deal with?
    pressure gradients
  2. What are the different pressure gradients?
    • transrespiratory
    • transpulmonary
    • transthoracic
  3. What is the formula for transrespiratory gradient?
    • causes gas to flow into and out of the alveoli during breathing
    • Prs = Palv - Pao
  4. What is the formula for transpulmonary gradient?
    • equals the pressure difference between the alveoli and pleural space
    • PL = Palv - Ppl
  5. What is the formula for transthoracic gradient?
    • pressure across the wall - total pressure necessarey to expand or contract the lungs and chest wall together
    • PW = PPL - Pbs
  6. What is lung compliance?
    distendability of the lung
  7. What is elastance?
    resistance to deformation
  8. What is normal compliance in healthy adults?
    0.2 L/cmH20
  9. What does surfactant do to the lungs?
    lowers surface tension
  10. Compliance, given value of normal , i.e. .2 and .2, combined = what?
    .1
  11. What is Total Compliance?
    lung compliance (CL) plus the compliance of the thorax (CT)
  12. What are the two frictional (non elastic) resistances?
    tissue viscous and airway resistance
  13. What is Tissue Viscous Resistance?
    • impedance of motion caused by displacement of tissues during ventilation
    • accounts for 20% of total resistance
  14. What is Airway resistance?
    • resistance due to gas flow through the airways
    • accounts for about 80% of total resistance
  15. What is compliance?
    change in volume / change in pressure
  16. What is airway resistance?
    change in pressure / change in flow
  17. Approximately __% of the resistance to gas flow occurs in the nose mouth and large airways
    80
  18. __% of total resistance to flow is due to airways smaller than 2 mm in diameter
    20
  19. What is equal pressure point (EPP)?
    the transmural pressure drop finally reaches a point where airway pressure and pleural pressure are the same. After this point the airway can collapse
  20. What is Dynamic Compliance?
    • used to assess pressure-volume relationships during breathing (it includes airway resistance).
    • dynamic compliance decreases as the respiratory rate increases
  21. Will COPD increase or decrease compliance?
    increase
  22. Will Kyphoscoleosis increase or decrease compliance?
    decrease
  23. What is the most important indication of ventilation?
    CO2
  24. Does Minute Ventilation include dead space in the calculation?
    • Yes
    • Minute ventilation = tidal volume x frequency
  25. Does Alveolar Ventilation inculde dead space in the calculation?
    • No
    • Alveolar ventilation = tidal volume x frequency - dead space

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