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What is Tonicity?
the degree of osmotic pressure exerted by a solution.
What are the different levels of Tonicity?
- Isotonic: are solutions that have osmotic pressures equal to the average intracellular pressure in the body. This is roughly equivalent to a saline solution (NaCl of 0.9%) This will cause no overall change in cellular water content.
- Hypertonic: solution are those with higher osmotic pressure or more tonicity. This will �draw� water out of cells.
- Hypotonic: solution are those with lower osmotic pressure or less tonicity. This will cause water to be absorbed from the solution into cells.
What is a saturated solution?
has the maximum amount of solute that can be held by a solvent, at a given temperature
What is a supersaturated solution?
contains more solute than a saturated solution, at the same temperature and pressure
What is osmotic pressure?
the force produced by the mobility of solvent particles under certain conditions
What is the Ratio Solution way of expressing a solution?
Ratio solution. The relationship of the solute to the solvent is expressed as a proportion (i.e., 1:100; solute:solvent).
What is the Weight per volume solution (W/V) way of expressing a solution?
Weight per volume solution (W/V). This is used for solids dissolved in liquids. They are expressed as grams of solute per 100 mL of solution. An example is 5 g of glucose dissolved in 100 mL of solution, here is considered to be a 5% solution.
What is the Percent solution way of expressing a solution?
Percent solution. This solution is the weight of solute per weight of solution. An example is 5 grams of glucose dissolved in 95 g of water. The glucose is 5% of the total solution weight of 100g (solute + solvent). It is a true percent solution.
What is an acid?
compound that increase the hydrogen ion concentration when placed in an aqueous solution. It is also a proton donor
What is a base?
a compound that gives up hydroxyl ions (OH-) when placed into an aqueous solution. It is known as a proton acceptor.
How many nanomoles per liter does water (neutral) have?
A change of 1 pH unit is equivalent to a _______ change in [H+].
A change in pH of 0.3 units equals a ________ change in [H+].
What is mainly responsible for water excretion?
What are the extracellular electrolytes?
- 1. sodium
- 2. chloride
- 3. bicarbonate
What are the intracellular electrolytes?
- 1. potassium
- 2. magnesium
- 3. phosphate
- 4. sulfate
- 5. protein
What are the two ways water is replenished?
- 1. Ingestion - This is the main form of replacement. The average adult drinks 1,500 to 2000 ml of water per day and gets 500 to 600 ml from foods
- 2. Metabolism - This water comes from the oxidation of fats, carbohydrates, proteins in the body and from the destruction of cells. Normal amount of water produced is 250 ml per day.
How does Insensible water loss occur?
Skin and Lungs
How does Sensible water loss occur?
Urine, Intestinal, and Sweat
What are the 7 major electrolytes, their charges, and normal values?
- Sodium (Na+), 136-145
- Chloride (Cl-), 98-106
- Calcium (Ca2+), 4.5 to 5.25 mEq/L
- Potassium (K+), 3.5-5.0
- Magnesium (Mg2+), 1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L
- Phosphate (HPO42-), 1.2 to 2.3 mEq/L
- Bicarbonate (HCO3-), 22 to 26 mEq/L