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  1. All-or-nothing thinking
    Classifying objects or events as absolutely right or wrong, good or bad, acceptable or unacceptable, and so forth.
  2. Antidepressants
    Mood-elevating drugs.
  3. Antipsychotics
    Drugs that, in addition to having tranquilizing effects, also tend to reduce hallucinations and delusional thinking. (Also calledmajor tranquilizers.)
  4. Anxiolytics
    Drugs (such as Valium) that produce relaxation or reduce anxiety
  5. Authenticity
    In Carl Rogers’s terms, the ability of a therapist to be genuine and honest about his or her own feelings.
  6. Aversion therapy
    Suppressing an undesirable response by associating it with aversive (painful or uncomfortable) stimuli.
  7. Behavior modification
    The application of learning principles to change human behavior, especially maladaptive behavior.
  8. Behavior therapy
    Any therapy designed to actively change behavior.
  9. Brief psychodynamic therapy
    A modern therapy based on psychoanalytic theory but designed to produce insights more quickly
  10. Client-centered (or person-centered) therapy
    A nondirective therapy based on insights gained from conscious thoughts and feelings; emphasizes accepting one’s true self.
  11. Cognitive therapy
    A therapy directed at changing the maladaptive thoughts, beliefs, and feelings that underlie emotional and behavioral problems.
  12. Community mental health center
    A facility offering a wide range of mental health services, such as prevention, counseling, consultation, and crisis intervention.
  13. Covert reinforcement
    Using positive imagery to reinforce desired behavior.
  14. Covert sensitization
    Use of aversive imagery to reduce the occurrence of an undesired response.
  15. Crisis intervention
    Skilled management of a psychological emergency.
  16. Culturally skilled therapist
    A therapist who has the awareness, knowledge, and skills necessary to treat clients from diverse cultural backgrounds.
  17. Deinstitutionalization
    Reduced use of full-time commitment to mental institutions to treat mental disorders.
  18. Demonology
    In medieval Europe, the study of demons and the treatment of persons “possessed” by demons.
  19. Dream symbols
    Images in dreams whose personal or emotional meanings differ from their literal meanings.
  20. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
    A treatment for severe depression, consisting of an electric shock passed directly through the brain, which induces a convulsion.
  21. Empathy
    A capacity for taking another’s point of view; the ability to feel what another is feeling.
  22. Encounter group
    A group experience that emphasizes intensely honest interchanges among participants regarding feelings and reactions to one another.
  23. Existential therapy
    An insight therapy that focuses on the elemental problems of existence, such as death, meaning, choice, and responsibility; emphasizes making courageous life choices.
  24. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)
    A technique for reducing fear or anxiety; based on holding upsetting thoughts in mind while rapidly moving the eyes from side to side.
  25. Family therapy
    Technique in which all family members participate, both individually and as a group, to change destructive relationships and communication patterns.
  26. Free association
    In psychoanalysis, the technique of having a client say anything that comes to mind, regardless of how embarrassing or unimportant it may seem.
  27. Gestalt therapy
    An approach that focuses on immediate experience and awareness to help clients rebuild thinking, feeling, and acting into connected wholes; emphasizes the integration of fragmented experiences.
  28. Group therapy
    Psychotherapy conducted in a group setting to make therapeutic use of group dynamics.
  29. Half-way house
    A community-based facility for individuals making the transition from an institution (mental hospital, prison, and so forth) to independent living.
  30. Hierarchy
    A rank-ordered series of higher and lower amounts, levels, degrees, or steps.
  31. Large-group awareness training
    Any of a number of programs (many of them commercialized) that claim to increase selfawareness and facilitate constructive personal change.
  32. Latent dream content
    The hidden or symbolic meaning of a dream, as revealed by dream interpretation and analysis.
  33. Manifest dream content
    The surface, “visible” content of a dream; dream images as they are remembered by the dreamer.
  34. Mental hospitalization
    Placing a person in a protected, therapeutic environment staffed by mental health professionals.
  35. Mirror technique
    Observing another person re-enact one’s own behavior, like a character in a play; designed to help persons see themselves more clearly.
  36. Overgeneralization
    Blowing a single event out of proportion by extending it to a large number of unrelated situations.
  37. Paraprofessional
    An individual who works in a near-professional capacity under the supervision of a more highly trained person.
  38. Partial hospitalization
    An approach in which patients receive treatment at a hospital during the day, but return home at night.
  39. Peer counselor
    A nonprofessional person who has learned basic counseling skills.
  40. Pharmacotherapy
    The use of drugs to alleviate the symptoms of emotional disturbance.
  41. Psychoanalysis
    A Freudian therapy that emphasizes the use of free association, dream interpretation, resistances, and transference to uncover unconscious conflicts.
  42. Psychodrama
    A therapy in which clients act out personal conflicts and feelings in the presence of others who play supporting roles.
  43. Psychosurgery
    Any surgical alteration of the brain designed to bring about desirable behavioral or emotional changes.
  44. Psychotherapy
    Any psychological technique used to facilitate positive changes in a person’s personality, behavior, or adjustment.
  45. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
    An approach that states that irrational beliefs cause many emotional problems and that such beliefs must be changed or abandoned.
  46. Reciprocal inhibition
    The presence of one emotional state can inhibit the occurrence of another, such as joy preventing fear or anxiety inhibiting pleasure.
  47. Reflection
    In client-centered therapy, the process of rephrasing or repeating thoughts and feelings expressed by clients so they can become aware of what they are saying.
  48. Resistance
    A blockage in the flow of free association; topics the client resists thinking or talking about.
  49. Role reversal
    Taking the role of another person to learn how one’s own behavior appears from the other person’s perspective.
  50. Selective perception
    Perceiving only certain stimuli among a larger array of possibilities.
  51. Self-help group
    A group of people who share a particular type of problem and provide mutual support to one another.
  52. Sensitivity group
    A group experience consisting of exercises designed to increase self-awareness and sensitivity to others.
  53. Somatic therapy
    Any bodily therapy, such as drug therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, or psychosurgery.
  54. Systematic desensitization
    A reduction in fear, anxiety, or aversion brought about by planned exposure to aversive stimuli.
  55. Tension-release method
    A procedure for systematically achieving deep relaxation of the body.
  56. Therapeutic alliance
    A caring relationship that unites a therapist and a client in working to solve the client’s problems.
  57. Therapy placebo effect
    Improvement caused not by the actual process of therapy but by a client’s expectation that therapy will help.
  58. Thought stopping
    Use of aversive stimuli to interrupt or prevent upsetting thoughts.
  59. Token economy
    A therapeutic program in which desirable behaviors are reinforced with tokens that can be exchanged for goods, services, activities, and privileges.
  60. Transference
    The tendency of patients to transfer feelings to a therapist that correspond to those the patient had for important persons in his or her past.
  61. Unconditional positive regard
    An unqualified, unshakable acceptance of another person.
  62. Vicarious desensitization
    A reduction in fear or anxiety that takes place vicariously (“secondhand”) when a client watches models perform the feared behavior.
  63. Virtual reality exposure
    Use of computergenerated images to present fear stimuli. The virtual environment responds to a viewer’s head movements and other inputs.
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Ch 13
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