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James-Lange theory of emotion
- Autonomic arousal and skeletal actions come first
- Scary situation leads to running away which leads to fear; fear doesn’t lead to running away
- Prediction: people with weak autonomic or skeletal responses should feel less emotion/ causing or increasing someones responses should increase emotion.
Emotions have 3 components
- Appraisal (emotional aspect)
- Action (behavioral aspect)
- emotional feeling (feeling aspect)
pure autonomic failure
- output from autonomic NS to the body fails completely or almost completely.
- Person with this doesn’t react to stressful situations with changes in heartbeat, BP, or sweating.
- Regular paralysis, autonomic system not affected
- Forebrain ares surrounding the thalamus
- Critical for emotion
- Amygdala is here
- Activated when you see something disgusting
- Also reacts to frightening pictures
Behavioral Activation System
Marked by low to moderate arousal and a tendency to approach (happiness or anger)
Behavioral Inhibition system
- Increases attention and arousal
- Inhibits action
- Stimulates emotions such as fear and disgust
- When right hemisphere is inactive people don’t experience strong emotions and don’t remember feeling them.
Response to an unexpected loud noise.
Emphasizes effects on health of diet, smoking, exercise, stressful experiences, and other behaviors.
Nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it.
General adaptation syndrome.
- Generalized reksponse to stress with 3 stages.
Alarm (GAS stage)
Increased activity of the sympathetic NS readying for brief emergency.
Sympathetic response declines, but adrenal cortex secretes cortisol and other hormones that enable body to main prolonged alertness.
Tired, inactive, and vulnerable b/c NS and immune systems no longer have energy to sustain their heightened responses.
- Hypothalamus, pituitary gland and adrenal cortex
- One of two systems stress activates (other is sympathetic NS)
- Hypo stimulates pituitary to secrete ACTH which stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol.
Includes leukosytes, antibodies, antigens, cytokines.
- Produced by leukocytes
- Immune system’s way of telling brain that body is ill.
- On surfaces of cells
- Are unique to the person
- Antibodies attach to them
- Secreted by B cells
- Attach to antigens on top of cells
Deals with the ways experiences alter the immune system and how the immune system influences the CNS.
- Ivan Pavlov
- CS paired with UCS which elicits UCR
- Eventually CS elicits CR
Learning by reinforcement or punishment
Anything that increases likelihood of a behavior.
Anything that decreases likelihood of behavior.
physical representation of what has been learned.
All parts of the cortex contribute equally to complex behaviors like learning and any part of the cortex can substitute for any other.
Cortex works as a whole, and more cortex is better.
Thompson experiment for the engram
Involved eye blinking with rabbits
Lateral interpositus nucleus (LIP)
- Thompson identified as central to learning
- When its inhibited training to blink eyes conditionally had no effect, did not take place.
- Midbrain motor area that receives input from cerebellum
- When suppressed the rabbits showed no responses during training
- When recovered the rabbits showed strong responses to conditioning
Short term memory
- Can hold about 7+/- 2 elements of data.
- Once somethings forgotten its lost.
Long term memory
Memories consolidated from short term into long term with repetition.
Temporary storage isn’t a station on the route to long term memory but the way we store information while we are working with it.
Delayed response task
Responding to something that you saw or heard a short while ago.
Inability to form new memories after brain trauma.
- Cannot remember past events occurring before brain trauma.
- Hippocampus involved in formation and recall of memory.
- Memories of single events.
- H.M. had an apparently complete loss of episodic memories.
- Brain treats episodic memories different from other memories.
Influence of recent experience on behavior even if one does not recognize that influence.
- Ability to state a memory in words.
- Hippocampus critical for declarative memory.
Development of motor skills and habits.
Enormous trouble learning new facts, they acquire new skills without apparent difficulty.
Delayed matching-to-sample talk
Animal sees an object (the sample) and after a delay gets a choice b/t two objects from which is must choose the one that matches the sample.
Delayed nonmatching-to-sample task
- Same procedure is the same except that animal must choose the object that is different from the sample.
- Hippocampal damage impairs performance.
Morris water maze task
- Rats must swim to a platform in the water
- Hippocampal damage: rat slowly learns to find platform if it always starts from the same place and the rest platform is always in the same place.
- If rat has already learned to find platform, hippocampal damage leaves rat exploring water at random like an untrained rat.
- May be particularly important for remembering the details and context of an event.
- Severe thiamine deficiency occurs mostly in chronic alcoholics
- Prolonged deficiency leads to shrinkage of neurons throughout the brain
- Distinctive symptom of Korsakoff’s
- Patients guess to fill in memory gaps
- May act like they know something that happened when they are making it up to make people believe they remember.
- Patients have better procedural than declarative memory
- Basal ganglia important for procedural memory
- Genes of Alzheimers secrete a protein called amyloid-B which accumulates inside and outside neurons and damages axons and dendrites.
- Damaged structures cluster into plaques that form before behavioral symptoms appear.
Loss of semantic/conceptual memory. (e.g. what is a sheep)
Synapse that increase in effectiveness because of simultaneous activity in the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons.
Decrease in response to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly and accompanied by no change in other stimuli.
An increase in response to mild stimuli as a result of exposure to more intense stimuli.
Long term potentiation (LTP)
- One or more axons connected to a dendrite bombard it with a brief but rapid series of stimuli
- The burst of intense stimulaton leave some of te synapses potentiated (more responsive) for minutes, days, or weeks.
If some synapses onto a cell have been highly active and other havnet only the active ones become strengthened. If LTP happens at one synapse it can help formation of LTP at nearby synapses on same dendrites.
Nearly simultaneous stimulation by two or more axons produces LTP much more strongly than does repeated stimulation by just one axons.
- Pairing a weak input with a strong input enhances later response to the weak input.
- LTP matches what we would expect of Hebbian synapses.
Long term depression (LTD)
Prolonged decrease in response at a synapse.
is excited by neurotransmitter glutamate but can respond to AMPA also.
is also ordinarily excited only by glutamate but can respond to a drug call NMDA.
- Postsynaptic cell releases this when it has extensive stimulation
- Travels back to presynaptic cell to modify it.
Discrete emotions – categories as labels for distinct states
- Differential emotion scale (DES, Izard)
Dimensions of emotion: empirically extracted from covariance of descriptor use
- Valence dimension: pleasant to unpleasant
- Arousal dimension: calm to aroused
- Dominance dimension: dominant to submissive
- Fear: unpleasant, aroused, submissive
- Anger: unpleasant, aroused, dominant
Emotion induction methods
- Viewing –
- emotional film sequences
- Emotional pictures
- Autobiographic emotional experiences
- Self referring statements
- Emotional stories
- Arrangement of “real-life” scenes
- Using actors
learning about a single stimulus (habituation and sensitization
Decrease in behavioral response to an innocuous stimulus (e.g. traffic noise, initially startled but no more response after a while)
Increase in behavioral response to an intense stimulus (e.g. startle response more vigorous in dark)
Learning of relationships between stimuli
Pavlov’s classical conditioning
- Conditioned stimulus (sound) followed by food (unconditioned stimulus) elicits (unconditioned response) salivation
- Eventually conditioned stimulus elicits conditioned response
Biological basis of learned responses
- Pavlov: “strengthened connection b/t CS center and UCS center in the brain”
- Expectation: after conditioning, any excitation of the CS center leads to flow of excitation to the UCS center, leading to UCR
- later: there is no one area where memories are stored, making and storing memories requires multiple brain areas.
- Learning and memory did NOT rely on single cortical area or connection between areas
- Search for the engram in subcortical areas, especially cerebellum
- Experiment: Rabbit, eyeblink conditioning: classical conditioning task, paired tone with puff of air until blink elicited by tone
- Experiment: temporary inactivation of LIP by cooling or injecting drug: rabbit doesn’t learn
- After reactivation/ rewarming: learns at same rate as other rabbits
- LIP needs to be active to allow learning
- Suppressing lateral interpositus nucleus: prevented rabbits from learning the CS/UCS association.
- Suppressing red nucleus: prevented rabbits from responding (no CR) but not from learning the association itself.
reverberating circuit in NS
- (a circle of neurons that are interconnected)
- As a trace of stimulation reverberates around circuit of neurons, gradually permanent change in chemical or structural make-up of NS occurs.
Long term potentiation:
bursts of stimulation from axons e.g. 100 excitations per second for 1-4 s onto dendrites leads to potentiated synapses for minutes, day, or weeks.
Baddley and Hitch’s model of working memory
STM is not a station on the way to LTM but a process of working with memories and encoding them in the process.
delayed response task
- experiment to tes working memory
- primary active brain area during delay is dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
- stimulus – delay – person must remember stimulus
The Hebbian synapse
- Reverberating circuit as basis of LTM storage
- synapse that increases its effectiveness due to simultaneous activity in the pre and postsynaptic neurons.