Vert Bio Final

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lledbetter.14
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122828
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Vert Bio Final
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2011-12-11 22:03:39
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Final exam for Vertebrate bio
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  1. What adaptations of beak shapes do birds have for different diets? Give Examples
    Range of beak shapes specialized for behavior and feeding.

    • Examples -
    • Insectivores: short, thin, pointed - like tweezers
    • Aerial sweepers: short, wide beak with wide gape
    • Carnivorous: use beak or talons to kill
    • Mud Strainers: eat small crustaceans and plankton
    • Seed Eaters: strong bills for cracking
  2. What adaptations of tongues do birds have for different diets?
    • Woodpeckers - long tongues to find insects
    • Hummingbrinds - long tongues to get nectar from flowers
  3. What adaptations of of crop do birds have for different diets?
    • is the enlarged part of the esophagus to store food temporarily
    • can store food for nestlings
  4. What adaptations of stomach do birds have for different diets?
    adapted to diet

    Carnivotes need expanding stomach - large amounts of soft food

    • Seed eaters need to break down tough food
    • Gizzard - posterior muscular part of stomach
    • -wall squeeze food
    • -swallow stones to grind food.
  5. What does the cloaca do and what is its precipitate?
    • It reabsorbs water
    • Uric acid is precipitated
  6. What are the different parts of bird feces?
    • White part is urate salt from uric acid precipitation
    • Black part is fecal matter
  7. Which senses are strongest in birds?
    • Olfactory is less important and hearing is about the same as human
    • Vision is very important - large eyes within relatively small skulls
  8. What do birds senses have to do with mating and territorial displays?
    • They play a role in mating behaviors
    • Red and White King Birds
    • -Birds dance in otder to get the attention of mates in the area
    • -He calls to them so they will come and see his display
    • Greater Birds of Paradise
    • -Displays in a tree with many different males at the same time.
    • -The female chooses the one that is best with the best genetics
    • -The females almost always mate with the same males and so the genetics of the most beautiful birds are passed down
  9. What pigments are invovled in feather color?
    • Melanin Pigments
    • - Eumelanin: black, grey, dark brown
    • - Phaemelanin: reddish-brown, black
    • Carotenoid Pigments
    • - Red, Orange, Yellow
    • - Comes from diet
    • - Indicates health of a bird
    • Porphyrins
    • - Contains metals, similar to hemoglobin
    • - Emit red under UV light
  10. What is sexual selection and why is it especially important to birds to choose a good mate?
    • Sexual selection is the choice of a female based on genetic factors that a male has and whether she wants those genes passed on to future generations
    • Can act opposite to natural selection
    • Bright colors can indicate good health, low parasite load
    • Also ability to escape from predators, plenty of engery to spend
    • Example -
    • Male Peacocks
    • -Males with nice tails have larger stronger chicks
    • -Females may invest more in eggs if male is attractive
  11. What kids of parental care and mating behaviors do birds have?
    • Nest
    • -Build by female, male or both
    • Parental care may be by mother father or both
    • -Example of both = Harpy Eagle
    • Polygyny
    • -males mate with several females
    • Resource defense polygyny
    • -males can hold a territory with several females
    • -copetition for best territory
    • Dominance polygyny
    • -males compete with each other via display/fighting
    • Polyandry: Females mate with multiple males
    • -females control important resources
    • -Leave eggs to be brooded by each male
    • -high chance of loss of nest: favorable to have many
  12. Discuss the different types of bird young?
    • Precocial young
    • -able to feed themselves at hatching
    • -example - Califonia Quail
    • Altricial Young
    • -Entirely dependent on parents for food/temperature
  13. Subclass Paleognathae
    • Old Jaws
    • Order Struthioniformes
    • Ratites - Large flightless birds
  14. Subclass Neognathae
    • New Jaws
    • Infraclass Galoanserae
    • -Fowl - Ducks, geese, quail, chickens
    • Infraclass Neoaves
    • -New Birds
    • -Including most Birds
  15. Describe the unusual ratities
    • Order Struthioniformes
    • Example
    • - Ostrich, Emu, Reah, Cassowary, Kiwi
    • Description
    • - Lack Keel, could never fly
    • - Males incubate eggs
    • - reduced furcula (wishbones)
    • - Cassowary (New Guinea, Austrailia)
    • - 2m Tall
    • - Very Dangerous
    • - Only Bird to cause physical death to humans
  16. Why are Darwin's finches of the Galapagos a model species?
    • They have a variety of beak shapes
    • They all descended from the same ancestors but in order to fill other niches their beaks have changed and evolved over time to allow for survival of the family
  17. Order Passeriforms
    • Infra class Neoaves
    • Pearching Birds
    • Many common species
    • Including blue jay, cardinal, robin, finch, sparrow, swallow
    • biggest group of neoaves (5,900 species)
  18. Order Apodiforms
    • Infraclass Neoaves
    • "Footless birds" : small legs mostly for perching
    • Evolved in Northern Hemisphere
    • Common Swift (Apus Apus)
    • - Aerial Insect-eater
    • - Never walk on ground
    • - Summer in Northern Europe, Cenral Asia
    • - Winter in South America
    • Hummingbirds
    • -Eat nectar
  19. Order Piciformes
    • Infraclass Neoaves
    • Woodpeckers
    • Usually insectivores
    • Brace on tail to drum
    • Long Tongue
    • Example - Red Headed Woodpecker
  20. Order Stragiformes
    • Infraclass Neoaves
    • Owls
    • Most swallow prety whole
    • excrete owl pellets
  21. Order Gallifromes
    • Infraclass Galoanserae
    • Land Fowl
    • Chicken, Turkey, Quail, Pheasant, Peacock
    • Most walk or run with little flight
    • Plump, short wings with a thick neck
  22. When did the Cenozoic Era begin?
    • 65.5 mya
    • Age of Mammals
  23. What has happened to continents and climates since it began?
    • The continents have gone through periods of receding waters are more land has shown as a result
    • India has connected to the Middle Eastern continent by this time
    • The climate has gotten much cooler since this period began
  24. What ecosystems evolved during this time and why is this important?
    • The origin of grassland ecosystems
    • - Coevolution with birds and mammals
    • Overall cooler temperatures
    • Land moved away from equator toward poles
    • Origin of tundra and desert ecosystems
    • Ice age began at beginning of Pleistocene Epoch, 2 mya
    • Glaciers covered 30% of all land (vs. 10% now)
    • Water tied in glaciers left land much drier
  25. What is the Pleiostocene Extinction?
    • It was the extinction of megafauna
    • - Ground sloths, cave bears, saber toothed cats, wooly rhinoceros, giant kangaroos
    • 13,000 -11,500 ya - Major Extinction
  26. What are the possible causes and what evidence supports which causes of the Pleiostocene Extinction?
    • Causes
    • -Climate change
    • -Human Hunting
    • -Combination of Both
    • Climate Change
    • -Appears more difficult for animals in glacial - interglacial
    • -warming more rapid
    • -Pro
    • -Pattern of extinction does not follow human migration
    • -Con
    • - Only the last glacial period resulted in such severe extinctions
    • Human Activity
    • -Overkill Hypothesis
    • -Historical knowledge of island extinctions
    • -the same process on continents
    • -Pro
    • - Large mammals and Birds affected
  27. What mammals became extinct during the Pleistocene and what did they have in common? Also Discuss the Caves.
    • Large mammls became extinct - 30% of mammalian genera
    • Cauvet Cave, France 30,000ya
    • -Aurochs - ancestors of cattle
    • -Wooly Rhino
    • -Wild Horses
    • -Cave Lion
    • -Cave Hyena
    • Lascaux Cave, France 17,000 ya
    • -Irish Elk (distributed across northern Eurasia)
    • -Very large elk
    • North and South American Megafauna included
    • -Giant Beaver (2.5m long)
    • -Mammoths and Mastodons
    • Giant Ground Sloth
    • -Megatherium
    • -6m tall on hind feet
    • Glyptodon (giant, heavily armored, armadilla-like)
    • Saber Toothed Cats (Smilodon)
  28. Which areas of the globe and what kinds of landmasses were affected?
    • Glaciers covered 30% of all land (vs. 10% now)
    • Water tied up in glaciers left much land drier
  29. What were the earliest synapsids (mammal-like reptiles) like and what were the earliest true mammals like?
    • They had a lower temporal fenestra
    • Therapsid: a more derived synapside gave rise to mammals
    • - Evolved endothermy, probably had hair
    • - Heterodont Teeth
    • Early Mammals
    • - Oviparous (egg laying) like monotremes
    • - Very small (less than 100g)
    • - Mammary Glands (lactation)
    • - Hair
    • - Large Olfactory Lobes (smell)
    • - Jurassic:mostly small, Insectivores/Carnivores
    • - Cretaceous: 1st therians (viviparous)
    • - Evolution of large mammals fills niches left by dinosaurs
  30. What novel traits arose in mammals and why are they important to mammalian lifestyles?
    • Lactation
    • - Parental care first
    • - Mammary glands evolved from sebaceous glands
    • - Milk passes innate immunity to offspring
    • - Origin with immune function rather then nutrition
    • Advantages
    • - Offspring need not be fed by adult food supply
    • - Mother can store fat as a resource for milk later
    • - Paerntal care is less needed
    • - Viviparous young can be very altricial
    • Important for lactation
    • - suckling
    • - Facial muscles, cheeks, lips needed
  31. Subclass Prototheria
    • Order Monotremata (monotremes)
    • Origins in Gondwana
  32. Subclass Theria
    • Origins in Laurasia
    • Infraclass Eutheria (placentals)
    • Infraclass Metatheria (marsupials)
  33. Monotremes
    • Australia/New Zealand/ New Guinea only
    • Egg-laying (oviparous), lactates through glands in the skin
    • Families Remaining
    • - Duck-billed platypus (family Ornithorhynshidae = "Bird Beak")
    • - Feeds on aquatic invertebrates
    • - as adults - no teeth
    • - beak is for electromagnetic sensing
    • - males - venomous spur on hind leg
    • - Echidna (Family Tachyglossidae = "Fast Tongue")
    • - Eats ants, termites, earthworms
    • - as adults - no teeth
    • - Snout for electromagnetic sensing
  34. Marsupials
    • 2 major clades of extant marsupials
    • - One in North and South America
    • - One in Austrailia
    • Raise altricial young in pouches - example - Kangaroo
    • Have Nipples
    • American (new world) extant marsupials
    • - Opossums
    • - Small - Medium, usually arboreal (move by climbing)
    • Austrailian Marsupials
    • - Evolved in S. America and migrated to Austrailia via Antarctica
    • - Kangaroos, Tasmanian devils, Koala bear, Wallabies
    • - Extinvt forms include bison-sized giant wombat
  35. Placentals (Eurotheria)
    • There was a period of rapid diversification that maeks it difficult to sort relationships
    • Three major clades
    • - Afrotheria
    • - Mostly African animals
    • - Elephants, manatees, hydraxes, aardvarks, tenercs
    • - Xenoarthra
    • - Anteaters, tree sloths, Armadillos
    • - New World Only
    • - Evolved in S. America when it was isolated
    • - Includes many extinct megafauna
    • - Boreoeutheria
    • - Includes everything not placed in the earlier categories
    • - Example - bats, carnivores, whales (Cetacea), cows (Ungulates), primates, ect
    • - Found worldwide in many different areas
  36. How is reproduction different and the same between these groups?
    • Same
    • - They all have lactation (milk for young)
    • Difference
    • - Therians (placentals/marsupials) vs. Nontherians (monotrems)
    • - Therians
    • - Viviparous
    • - Nipples
    • - Nontherians
    • - Oviparous
    • - No Nipples
  37. Reproduction in Monotremes
    • The ancestral condition
    • Eggs is fertilized and retained in uterus
    • Maternal secretions provide the nourishment
    • Then shell (leathery) secreted and yolk provides nourishment
    • Alricial young are brooded by the mother
  38. Reproduction in Marsupials
    • Development is a derived trait
    • Very altricial young
    • Well developed forelimbs, face and mouth
    • most have pouch enclosing the nipples
    • more time attached to nipple than gestating
  39. Reproduction in Placentals
    • Young develop further enclosed within the uterus
    • Varies by species and order in how altricial or precocious the young are
  40. Three major clades in Eutheria
    • Afrotheria - Mostly African animals
    • Xenoarthra - New world only, relatively few extant species
    • - Lack incisors
    • Boreoeutheria - diverse and worldwide
    • - 2 groups within
    • - Rodents, rabbits and primates
    • - Bats, whales, hoofed mammals, carnivores
  41. What is an ecomorph and what mammalian ecomorphs are there?
    • Ecomorphs are distantly related species that may physically resemble one another more than other closely related species.
    • Mammalian Ecomorphs
    • - Specialization for eating ants and termites
    • - Giant Anteater(S. America), Aardvark(Africa), Pangolin(Asia/Africa), Echidna(Austrailia)
  42. Describe mammalian anatomical specializations for different modes of feeding?
    • Whales
    • - Baleen - present on whales
    • - This is a flexible material made of keratin that whales use to filter their prey from the seawater
    • Walrus
    • - Use their flat teeth for holding/crushing shells
    • - The seal is very closely related to the Walrus and they are both carnivores
    • Sharp, Tearing Teeth
    • - Dogs and Cats
    • Gnawing Teeth
    • - Mice and Rabbits
    • Aquatic, Fish-eating
    • - Dolphin
    • Grinding Plants
    • - Deer, Cow
    • In Humans
    • - Muscles
    • -Temporalis Muscle - Largest in Carnivores
    • - Masseter muscle - largest in herbivores
  43. Describe digestive specializations in mammals.
    • Herbivores need to digest cellulose
    • - They have micro-organisms in the gut that produce cellulose to break it down
    • Hindgut fermenters: Simple stomach
    • - Fermentation takes place inside of the large intestine and the caecum
    • Foregut fermenters: three chambered stomach
    • - Ruminants (cud chewing)
    • - Cows, camels
  44. Describe anatomical specializations for locomotion of mammals?
    • Forms of locomotion
    • - Swimming
    • - Cursorial = Running
    • - Fossorial = Digging
    • movements of the whale - notice how the tail is horizontal and the spine movements being very similar to other vertebrates on the land
    • Different forms of the feet
    • - Plantigrade
    • - digitigrade
    • - Unguligrade
    • Cursorial (running) adaptations
    • - Elongated lower limbs (tibia/fibula, radius/ulna)
    • - Musculature at proximal end of limb (femur, humerus)
    • - Less rotation of wrists and ankles
    • - Digit reduction
    • - Loss or reduction of thumb and 5th digit
    • Fossorial (digging) adaptations
    • - Elongated bodies (ferrets and weasels)
    • - Shortened forelimbs with large claws (moles)
    • - Sometimes digging with teeth like a chisel (gophers)
    • Swimming
    • - Webbing of toes (also seen in otters)
    • - Reduction/Disapperance of pelvis in some
    • - shifting of hindlimb orientation in others
    • - Streamlining form into a torpedo shape for minimum water resistance
    • - Modification of forelimbs into flippers
  45. Sirenia
    • Afrotherians
    • manatees and Dugongs - marine coasts, tropical or temperate
    • Dense Skeletons
    • Hunted for hides and meat
    • Eat seagrass = only marine herbivorous mammal
  46. Proboscidea
    • Elephants
    • Afrotherians
    • Complex social structure lead by older females
    • Communication through grunting and foot tapping
    • Domesticated, Especially in South Asia
    • Symbols of wisdom
    • (video of the herd helping the baby elephant out of the pond)
  47. Cingulata
    • Armidillos
    • Xenarthra's
    • Have been moving northward from S. America and crossing into the US since the 19th century
    • Insectivores
    • Unique identical quadruplet offspring
    • They are used in leprosy research
    • - This is because they carry the leprosy gene but are unaffected by it
    • - No loss of limbs because of this disease
  48. Rodentia
    • Rodent
    • Bereoeutherian
    • Most diverse mammalian group (2,000 Species)
    • 5g-70kg
    • Present on all continents except Antarctia
    • Gnawing teeth - rootless incisors that are continuously growing
    • Example - mice, rats, squirrels, beavers
    • Porcupines
    • - Quills are modified hairs that detach easily and stick into the skin of the predator
  49. Primatea
    • Lemurs, Monkeys, Apes, Humans
    • Boreoeutherians
    • 230 Species - most in tropical rainforests
    • forward looking orbitals
    • opposable thumbs and 1st toes
    • mobile wrists and ankles gripping trees
    • Nails in the place of claws
    • very social
    • 2 pectoral nipples usually 1 offspring produced
  50. Lagomorpha
    • Rabbits, Hares, Pika
    • Boreoeutherian
    • Distinguished by the second set of incisors behind the first
  51. Chiroptera
    • Bats
    • Boreoeutherian
    • Only true flying mammals
    • Fly by flapping digits, not whole limbs
    • Mostly Herbivorous or insectivorous
    • Use echolocation (ultrasonic sound) for seeing
  52. Artiodactyla
    • Hoofed animals, deer, camels, sheep, pigs
    • Boreoeutheria - Ungulates
    • Even number of toes
    • Usually Herbivorous
    • Many Domesticated
  53. Perissodactyla
    • Horses, Rhinoceroses, Tapirs
    • Boreoeutherian - Ungulates
    • Odd number of toes
    • all are hindgut fermenters
  54. Cetacea
    • Whales and Dophins
    • Closest relationships are to artiodactyles (hippos)
    • Must live in water
    • Nares on top of skull
  55. Carnivora
    • Bears, raccoons, cats, dogs
    • Many forms of domestication
    • - the breeding of dogs for certian traits - bulldogs, chihauhau
    • Largest carnivore
    • - Elephant seal
    • - Can hold breath for 100 minutes and dive 1500m
    • - Males up to 5m long and 3000kg
  56. Jawless Fishes
    Formerly Class Agnatha
  57. Class Chondrichthyes
    • Cartlidage fish
    • Rays and Sharks
  58. Class Actinopterygii
    • Osteichythes
    • Subclass Chondrostei
    • Subclass Neoptergii
    • - Infraclass Holostei
    • - Infraclass Teleostei
  59. Class Sarcopterygii
    Osteichthyes
  60. Class Amphibia
    • Order Anura
    • Order Urodela/Caudata
    • Order Gymnophiona
  61. Class Reptilia
    • Order Testudines
    • Order Squamata (Lepidosauria)
    • - Suborder Iguania
    • - Suborder Scleroglossa
    • -- Suborder Amphisbaenia
    • -- Suborder Serpentes
    • Order Crocodylia (Archosauria)
    • Order Sphenodontia/Rynchocephalia (Lepidosauria)
  62. Class Aves
    • Archosauria
    • Subclass Paleognathae
    • Subclass Neognathae
    • -- Infraclass Galoanserae
    • -- Infraclass Neoaves
  63. Class Mammalia
    • Subclass Prototheria (Monotremata)
    • Subclass Theria
    • - Infraclass Eutheria (Placentals)
    • - Infraclass Metatheria (Marsupials)
  64. What physiological and anatomical adaptations do more derived fish have?
    • Electricity
    • - Electrical discharge from modified muscle cells (electrocytes)
    • -- Used in defense/hunting, weakly electric in courtship
    • -- Example - electric eel, torpedo ray, elephant fish
    • -Electroreception
    • -- Especially known in sharks and rays
    • -- can detect electric fields (modification of lateral line)
    • -- Dectect prey (can find hidden fish that can't be smelled or seen)
    • -- Possible also for navigation
    • Sharks
    • -- Use chemoreception with Ampullae of Lorenzini to detect prey and have a line running down their body that is an adaptation of the lateral line to aid in sensing prey
    • -- Tooth whorl
    • --- Tooth replacement every week and a limitless supply of teeth in the form of a whorl (spiral)
    • Some Fish
    • -Line in O-poor envioronments
    • - Storage for gulped air, structures include labyrinth in back of head
    • - Lungs: may have evolved in freshwater placoderms
  65. What are the Advatages to living in the water?
    • There are many niches to fill for different types of fish
    • - Example - predators, bottom feeders, producers (planktons)
    • Water maeks up 73% of the Earth so there is a lot of space to fill and habitats to inhabit and thus many different species can evolve
    • They never had to go through the evolution onto land so they could stay and become more adapted for filling new niches
  66. What are the Disadvantages to living in the water
    • The need to adjust buoyancy, push through water
    • - Fluid resistant and the need for streamlined shapes
    • The need to maintain a stable interior environment
    • - Ions corssing freely between the body and water
    • There is a low O2 content in water as compared to air
    • The loss of body heat into the water
  67. How do fish get oxygen?
    • Gills
    • - Structures to exchange CO2nd O
    • -- Two columns of gill filaments per gill arch
    • -- Secondary lamellae: filarments where gas exchange take place on the gills
    • -- Countercurrent Exchange: Blood clows through the lamellae opposite in direction to water flow (maximizes O)
    • - In teleosts, gills are enclosed in opercular cavities
    • -- Valces to keep water flowing correctly
    • --- In mouth, out gills
    • - Two different types
    • -- Buccal pumping: using mouth and operculae to pump water across the gills
    • -- Ram ventilation: no pumping swim with mouth open
    • --- Example - Some sharks, tuna, mackerel
  68. How do fish maintian buoyancy?
    • Can use lungs as swim bladders (bichirs and teleosts)
    • Swim bladder located ventral to vertebral column
    • Gas must be removed or added to swim bladder as the fish swims up or down
    • - Either through the gut (primitive)
    • - Through the blood (derived)
    • -- rete mirabile
    • In Chondrichthyes
    • - Have no swim bladder
    • - Use liver instead
    • - Shark livers very dense in oil (may be 25% of body mass)
    • - Nitrogen compounds in the blood less dense than water
  69. How do fish maintain homeostasis?
    • Structure - Kidney
    • - Removes salt, water and waste from the blood to help achieve homeostasis
    • - Freshwater teleosts - do not drink, get extra salts from food
    • -- Exchange of H2O and ions is within the gills (ions actively pumped in, and diffused out)
    • -- Kidneys reabsorb ions, produce a lot of urine
    • - Marine Teleosts - Drink Seawater
    • -- Most echange of H2O and ions is in gills (ions actively pumped out)
    • -- Low amounts of urine, but very concentrated
    • - Ions = sodium chloride (Salt)
    • - Marine Cartilaginous fish - do not drink
    • -- H2O, ions diffuse across gills
    • --- Low permeability to salt
    • -- Maintain internal concentation close to seawater but slightly more salty (= Hyperosmodal)
    • -- Retain nitrogen compounds
    • -- Secrete salty fluid to rid extra ions
  70. How do fish sense the world around them?
    • Structures
    • - Well Developed eyes
    • - Taste bud organs in mouth, around head, anterior fins
    • - Olfactory organs on snout
    • - Salmon use smell to return to home stream
    • Touch: internal ear sensitive to motion, gravity, sound pressure
    • Neuromast Cells: clusters or hair and related cells on head and body
    • Lateral line system: neuromasts located on head and along body
    • - Senses movement and vibration in water
    • - Only in fish, amphibian larvae and aquatic amphibians
    • - two configurations of neuromasts
    • -- Within tubular canals inset in the skin
    • -- Exposed in depressions in the epidermis
    • -Hairs are set in the cupula
    • -- Gelatinous material in cupula
    • --- Displacement bends hairs, triggers nerves
    • - Provides information from all directions and along body
  71. Which class is mostly related to tetrapods?
    Tetrapods are closely related to Sarcopterygian fishes
  72. What were the earliest tetrapods like?
    • They were mostly reptiles and amphibians
    • Icthyostega: similar to amphibians with lungs and limbs
    • - Supportive ribs with 7 digits on hind limbs
    • Acanthostega: fish like shoulder and forelimb with 8 digits
    • - Internal gills
    • - Head not joined to pectoral girdle
    • Tiktaalik
  73. How did morphology of the skeleton change between the fish and tetrapods?
    • There had to be changes that would allow physical activity and load bearing
    • - Bone responded by increasing the mass
    • - The bone was too heavy so it adapted into two parts
    • -- Cortical Bone: hard, dense outer layer
    • -- Trabecular (cancellous) bone: spongy
    • - With cartilage at the joints to reduce the friction
    • The loss of the operculum which connects the head to the pectoral girdle was also required
    • - This meant that fish could not turn their heads
    • - Tetrapods lack this so the head can turn separate from the body
  74. How did morphology change between the fish and tetrapods in the muscles?
    • Axial muscles in tetrapods
    • - Support trunk
    • - Ventilate lungs
    • Fish muscles
    • - Pectoral and Pelvic levators lift fins up and back
    • -- Correspond to the human deltoid
    • - Pectoral and Pelvic depressors push fins down and forward
    • -- Corresponds to the human pectoralis
    • - Muscles of mandible and hyoid arch development was also required
  75. How did morphology change between the fish and tetrapods in the circulatory system?
    • Tetrapods have to pump blood against gravity
    • Heart is more posterior in tetrapods than in fish
    • - Fish heart in gill region anterior to pectoral girdle
    • - tetrapod: heart in thorax posterior to pectoral girdle
    • Double Ciruclation
    • - Pulmonary circuit supplies lungs with deoxygenated blood
    • - Systemic circuit supplies oxygenated blood to body
  76. How did morphology change between the fish and tetrapods in the sensory system?
    • Tetrapod innovations
    • - Eyelids
    • - Glands to lubricate eye
    • -- Lactimal (tear) gland
    • - Nasolacrimal duct - Drains tears from eyes and nose
    • Inner Ear: detects airborne sounds
    • - Sound waves transmitted through bone in middle ear
    • - Tympanum: eardrum, membrane that vibrates with sound waves
    • Jacobson's Organ
    • - Anterior roof of mouth
    • - Used in chemosensory
    • -- Snake Tongue
    • -- Flehmen of ungulates
  77. How did morphology change between the fish and tetrapods in the respiratory system?
    • Lung ventilation in amniotic tetrapods
    • - Negative pressure aspiration pump
    • -- Intercostals muscles expand rib cage
    • --- Creates negative pressure in abdomen
    • --- Air sucked in
    • -- Rib cage compresses abdominal cavity
    • --- Expels air
    • --- Contraction of lungs and transverses abdominus muscle
    • - Very subdivided lungs to incease surface area
  78. What adaptations were necessary to become fully independent of water?
    • Water loss through evaporation: body surface, respiration
    • Water loss through excretions: Kidney's, Urinary system
    • The evolution of spidermal cells with keratin
    • - Makes it water resistant
    • - Lipids in skin main protection against water loss
    • Urinary Bladder
    • - Receives urine from kidney's holds until ready to excrete
    • Cloaca: Sewer
    • - Urinary, digestive and reproductive systems have a single opening
  79. What are the pros and cons of metabolism in ectothermy?
    • Enegry attained from extrinsic environment
    • - Solar energy
    • - Example - Reptiles
    • Conduction: between animal and solid
    • Pros -
    • - Low energy needs
    • Cons -
    • - More vulnerable to cold
  80. What are the pros and cons of metabolism in Endothermy?
    • Energy obtained by metabolic means
    • - Mammals and birds
    • - example - homeostatic heat
    • Pros -
    • - More independent of the environment
    • - More easily nocturnal
    • - Can live in colder climates
    • Cons -
    • - High energy needs
  81. How do the sauropsid and synapsid endotherms differ from each other?
    • Synapsids
    • - Hair/subcutaneous fat
    • - Relatively drier cooler air inhaled than body temperature
    • - Air needs to be warmer and moister to protect lungs
    • - Solution: turbinates
    • -- Moist tissue covering thin bone in nasal passages
    • -- Warm and moisten incoming air, cool and condense outgoing air
    • - Has complex teeth with strong jaw muscles to break down food and make it more particulate to allow more energy to be taken into the body and less loss due to not being properly broken down.
    • Sauropsids
    • - Feathers - downy feathers
    • - Has specialized teeth to allow for food to be broken down
    • - Muscular gizzard in birds
    • -- Swallow gravel to aid in particulating food
    • - Turbinates
  82. What kinds of vertebrates belong to each class and what traits are unique to each class?
    • Synapsids - Birds
    • Sauropsids - Mammals
  83. What are the major conservation issues and threats of extinction facing vertebrates today and how do they differ from the extinction events of the past?
    • road kill
    • pollution
    • loss of water
    • loss of habitat due to industrialization and deforestation
  84. What is an ecomorph?
    • Ecomorph = ecologically equivalent species
    • - Similar environment may lead to similar forms
    • - Example of convergent evolution
    • Anoles are a good example
  85. What are parallel, divergent and convergent evolution?
    • Parallel - Evolved beside one another to fit specific niches
    • Divergent - separated form one another while in the same community to fit different niches
    • Convergent - Two different species evolving similar traits because of the similar habitat they both reside in.
  86. What are some important transitional fossils?
    • Tiktaalik
    • Ichthyostega
  87. How did major extinction events, plate tectonics and climate change affect the course of vertebrate evolution?
    • Separation of the different species into different areas
    • Causesd different species to evolve in different areas causing differences in niches

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