HA 100 pt2

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HA 100 pt2
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Final exam images part two
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HA 100 western art history final exam images part two
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    • Marie-Louise-Elisabeth
    • Vigee-Lebrun. Portrait of Marie Antoinette with Her Children. Oil on Canvas.
    • Rococo. 1787. She is a figure on the brink straddling the styles of Rococo and
    • Neoclassicism. She is a woman artist, and also the woman patron. Marie and
    • three of her children depicted. When you look at this elements seem typical of
    • the Rococo: soft figures, the natural motifs on the rug. Neoclassicism: not a
    • pastel color pallet, much more saturated. Piece of important political
    • propaganda for Marie, and for the French crown in general. Showing herself as
    • caregiver, in her most important role, as provider of heirs to the throne. Prince
    • is on right, next in line for succession. Empty cradle reinforces her
    • procreative role, but also idea of sadness because a child has just died, as it
    • is empty. During this time and up until this time it wasn’t that unusual to see
    • middle class women surrounded by their children in portraits, so she casts
    • herself in a role that seems to evoke the earlier tradition of the virgin and
    • child because of the young child in her lap. The idea of the good mother is
    • important to Marie and to the idea of promoting the stability of the monarchy
    • and the state. It was coming under much criticism for excessive spending.
    • Painted only two years away from the French Revolution that topples the
    • monarchy. Some of the anxiety of the revolution is building when this portrait
    • was painted. She was criticized for her elaborate fashion which was very, very
    • expensive. Space to her left may be evoking the hall of mirrors. The artist is
    • a court painter for Marie Antoinette. Indication of rising status of artist in
    • general, but also the opportunity of women to make their careers as painters.
    • We have the beginning of schools of art, academies. Royal Academy founded
    • around this time, and Vigee-Lebrun was allowed to enter this academy.
    • Antoinette was instrumental in helping Vigee-Lebrun display her work in
    • official Salons. Official, state sponsored exhibition venue has capital s,
    • Salon. Lowercase s salon is an estate room.
    • Angelica Kauffmann. Cornelia Pointing to Her Children as Her
    • Treasures. Oil on Canvas. Neoclassicism. 1785. Kauffmann trained in Rome, so
    • she has an esteemed training. Spent some time living and working in Rome,
    • but most of it spent in England. She has
    • cachet of woman who paints history subjects (like Artemesia Gentelesce, Italy).
    • When you look at this, the columns are basic element that points to classic
    • theme. Draped garments that look like togas. Limited color palette of reds,
    • yellows, blues, and white. Looking at a painting that takes its subject from
    • Roman history. It is a story from 2nd century BCE during Republican
    • era of Rome. Cornelia, girl in white in center, is visited by another Roman
    • woman matriarch, who has a discussion about their earthly treasures. The
    • matriarch points to her jewels, in contrast to Cornelia who points to her
    • children as her earthly treasures. So theme of good mother is present here as
    • well. Theme of support of the state, republican values, family values, is
    • indicated in the way Cornelia points to her children. Later part of the story,
    • the two boy grow up to be reformers of Rome, important administrative and
    • political figures. The emphasis on the state, the family as foundation of
    • state, is relevant to contemporary moment, 18th century France. In a
    • period where a lot of things are changing and French revolution is on horizon.
    • In contrast to Baroque and Rococo, they occupy their own space, the forms can
    • be separated from each other. Angelica was a member of the Royal academy, one
    • of the founding members as a matter of fact.
    • Jacques-Lous David. Oath of Horatii. 1784-1785. Oil on
    • Canvas. Neoclassicism. Poster boy of neoclassicism. Completed on large scale to
    • add to seriousness and importance. In history painting that draws on classical
    • past with arches and columns and figures wearing garments like togas, sandals,
    • and military headpieces that look like they’re from the Roman past. Subject
    • draws on story from 7th century Rome. Story about conflict between
    • Rome and neighboring city Alba. Long standing border disputes between them, at
    • some point they decided to resolve their tensions. Way they came up with to do
    • this was send three strongest men from each city to fight to the death. Whoever
    • was left standing would be the victor. Rome sends three Horatii brothers
    • (triplets) and Alba sends Curatii brothers. Subject takes theme of sacrifice
    • for good of the state, personal sacrifice and family sacrifice. Father of the
    • Curatii, arms outstretched to their father pledging their lives to fight ot
    • death for the Power of Rome. Not necessarily perceived as positive thing; women
    • on the right are slumped over, holding onto each other, weeping, in sadness
    • because someone is going to die and it may very well be their brothers/husband.
    • Horatii defeat their foes from Alba. One of the sisters is engaged to a
    • Curatii, so her sadness of his death gets her killed by her brother, a Horatii,
    • because she is not dedicated to the Republic. The painting is very large to say
    • I am important, I have an important message to convey.
    • Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Grande Odalisque. Oil on
    • Canvas. Orientalism. 1814. Using French models but casting her in foreign
    • accessories to cast her as an odalisque, or exotic woman. Oreintalism is a concept where Europeans and
    • Americans conceive themselves as morally upright, superior, and masculine, in
    • contrast to an exotic other who is feminine, lazy, hypersexualized, and morally
    • lax. Viewer most likely a European male. Interestingly it was commissioned by a
    • woman for her husband who was an established political figure. .Strangely
    • idealized female, smooth porcelain skin, no wrinkles, her feet look like
    • they’ve never been walked on, no muscle definition. In fact, physicians who
    • viewed the portrait decided if this woman were to exist, she would have to have
    • extra vertebra.
    • Theodore Gericault. Raft of the “Medusa.” 1818-1819. Oil on
    • Canvas. Romanticism. Coriard & Sevigny. Subject is devastating event
    • related to the wreck of the French naval ship Medusa. A ship called Medusa was capture
    • by aristocrat, who was made captain because of his connections to Charles 10th.
    • Embarks on voyage with number of French citizens to help populate and colonize
    • Senegal. Not enough life boats on board when ship wrecks, so captain,
    • aristocrats, and whoever is of highest social status get to go on them. Others
    • sent on makeshift raft. Starts with 152
    • people; after two weeks, only 15 people survived. Govt and captain wanted to cover
    • up the tragedy, but are not able to do so because of published account. Hung in
    • Salon of 1818, and govt hated it. Forced Gericault to take it down, so he then
    • takes it on the road to London, England, and Ireland, where people actually PAY
    • to see it. History painting of a contemporary event that is painted on such a
    • massive scale in order to convey that the contemporary matter is important.
    • Francisco Goya. The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, from
    • Los Caprichos. 1799. Aquatint and etching. Romanticism. Frontispiece. Series of
    • images highly critical of institutions; politics, marriage, church, education,
    • prostitution, really any part of society. Goya doesn’t really leave anything
    • out of his critique. This particular image is the frontispiece, the image that
    • appears across from the title page. Opening image of the series. Personification
    • of Sleep here. Man has fallen asleep, and in that sleep all of these terrifying
    • sort of creatures appear. Cats, bats, and owls are nocturnal creatures, so they
    • are often thought of as evil and danger. This image taken up as emblem of the enlightenment
    • because of its critique of irrationality. There were a number of slightly more
    • elaborated textual configurations written to go along with these images.
    • “Imagination abandoned by Reason produces impossible monsters; united with her,
    • she is the mother of the arts and the source of their wonder.” Goya took them
    • off the market because he was afraid of being brought before acquisition, part
    • of church that would condemn him for being so critical of the Catholic church
    • and other institutions. Aquatint: take metal plate and dust fine grain granules
    • which react with acid when submerged in acid bath. To create lighter shades and
    • darker shades, he puts granules in selective places to darken areas. Then he
    • draws etch lines and submerges it again.
    • JMW Turner. The Slave Ship. (Slavers Throwing Overboard the
    • Dead and Dying, Typhoon Coming On). 1840. Romanticism. Instead of picturesque,
    • we have idea of sublime. Capturing overwhelming, terrifying, awesome forces of
    • uncontrollable nature. We can see this sort of power in the seascape with the
    • turbulent dark swirling waves. With this painting of the slave ship, we also
    • sort of have a history scene
    • Courbet. Stone Breakers. 1850. Oil on Canvas. Realism. Rebels against academic traditions. More interested in everyday, plight of working class--work of social realism. Paints on a very large scale to draw on importance of these individuals. Rough surface painting. Emphasis on tactility. Man and boy
    • breaking stones apart to pave roads. This is strenuous, back breaking labor. Kind of thing that prisoners on chain gangs had done previously, but working class is doing it instead. Painting was destroyed in WWII. Courbet painted without any apparent sentiment; instead, he let the image of the two men, one too young for hard labor and the other too old, express the feelings of hardship and exhaustion that he was trying to portray.
    • Courbet shows sympathy for the workers and disgust for the upper class by painting these men with a dignity all their own.
  1. Louis Sullivan. Wainwright Building, St. Louis MO. 1890-91. Architects can’t build out, so they build up! Use of steel for first time, previously buildings were made of marble, masonry, brick, even iron. But iron wasn’t ideal because it rusted and it burned. Steel was more durable and lighter, able to support a lot of weight. Development of elevators around this time, too. Steel skeleton, then masonry is laid over it, kind of like a shell. This is called a curtain wall, which gives ultimate form. Chicago School was group of architects loosely based around Chicago that popularized sky scrapers as a kind of building form.
    • Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre. The Artist’s Studio. Daguerrotype. His photograph types are called daguerreotypes. They are all one offs. With this,
    • you have a box, metal plate placed in that box, hole cut out, metal plate is treated with chemical that reacts when exposed to light. When light is exposed
    • to that plate, the image is affixed permanently to that metal plate, so you cannot replicate the daguerreotype. Exposure time is about a minute, so we see a lot of portraiture, or things that can stand still for a significant amount of time. Because it’s based on chemical means, and sometimes associated with mechanical reproduction, early photographers were interested in promoting it as
    • an early art form.
    • Edouard Manet. Olympia 1863. Manet was a Realism and impressionism transitory figure. People were bothered by this, so it had to be taken down. Naked woman wearing jewelry and shoes draws attention to her nudity. Outlining of her body with brown makes the woman look dirty, like coal miner’s daughter. She is looking directly out at viewer in confident and almost confrontational manner. Her chin is not tilted down, so no suggestion of any modesty. Her morality is in suspect. Title Olympia is extremely suggestive; if you lived in France in 19th century, basically it was a word for “dirty prostitute.” Forcing viewer to acknowledge her available sexuality. Her sexuality is made uncomfortable and problematic by a few other details: shoes and shawl could have been worn by modest middle class woman, social markers
    • that could classify her as an elevated woman; maid servant; cat in threatening pose. Servant gives insertion of the idea of the other, of non European,
    • defined in contrast to the American European, who define selves as morallyupright, industrious.
    • Claude Monet, Impression, Sunrise 1872. Impressionism, group of artists who exhibited together as a group for about 12 years. Seek out
    • alternative exhibition venue because there work isn’t being accepted into the Salon. Reject academic traditions and setting themselves up as outsiders. So
    • impressionists and their work can be understood under the term, the Avant garde. Set out to challenge traditions, purposefully innovative in either style
    • or subject. Landscape seascape depicted. When critics look at it, they say its unfinished wallpaper. It actually did look like unfinished sketch compared to
    • what a more academic painter would have painted it. Plen air "in the open air" referring to it being painted outdoors. He uses complimentary colors. Tubed oil paints used.
    • Edgar Degas. The Rehearsal of the Ballet on Stage. C 1874. Hires models and poses them in his studio. Makes preparatory studies. Tends to repeat shapes, poses, and gestures over and over again. Repetitive nature of his art distinguishes him from the more spontaneous process of someone like Monet. He was obsessed with a limited number of subjects, ballerinas and performers were two examples of this. Depicted ballerinas in print, pastel, and
    • many other mediums.
    • Mary Cassatt. Maternal Caress. Aquatint,
    • drypoint & soft ground etching. Impressionism.
    • Mary Cassatt determined to create prints that captured similar bold designs and spare beauty.
    • The models may be friends of the artist, as Cassatt frequently included her friends' and relatives'
    • children in her paintings, drawings, and prints. The artist does not idealize the children's poses;
    • rather, the awkward hugs and the chubby bodies reflect her ability to portray intimate moments
    • seriously and without sentimentality.
  2. Georges Seurat. A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte. Oil on Canvas. Post Impressionism. One of Seurat's most famous work, it is an example of pointilism--dots and dashes applied in a systematic manner. Divisionism, how he applies colors, justaposition to enhance the color to make them more vivid; generally used complementary colors. Warm bright colors applied with upward stroke evoke sense of happiness; dark w/ downward stroke suggests somberness (Chevrel is who came up with this color theory). No facial featres/individualized to add to growing sense of alienation in modern life. Calling attention to the fact that this is a piaintnig, a made object, on account of the false border. He spent over two years painting it. He made studies, prep paintings, for this works, this one took over 60.
    • Paul Cézanne. Mont Sainte-Victoire. Oil on
    • Canvas. Post Impressionism. Expressionism. This was a mountain he often saw from his home. Less about the ephemeral and transitory(things lasting for a very short time). Swirling leaves make parallel silhouette. Make it look like it's in the foreground with the mountain in background. Paint applied in parallell brushstrokes without merging color--> passage technique. Sentimental/nostalgic quality for Cezanne
  3. Vincent van Gogh. The Starry Night. Oil on Canvas. Post Impressionism. Van Gogh was a Dutch artist who only painted in the last ten years of his life. He tried to finish every painting in one sitting. Expressionist painter. Use of color is dynaimc. Van Gogh started painting realistically. Depressive, alcoholic, neurotic and sufferened mental health issues. This work was completed while he was checked into a mental institute. Cypress trees and town layout are French. The CHurhc, however, is Dutch. Emphasis on personal, which is a big characteristic of post impressionism. Burhswork impoastoed-->thick 3D. Transcendental, mystical, or spiritual sense for artist, which he may be trying to convey to the viewers, too.
    • Edvard Munch. The Scream. Oil on Canvas. Post
    • Impressionism. Expressionism. Symoblism art movement. Transitory, dreams, oppose rationality and progress; fantasy. Freud is publishing psychoanalysis at this time, so likely influenced by his theories. This is a painting of it, but it was also completed in other mediums. Scream emenates from the figure and seems to resonate and reverborate. Disturbing because of color choice and dramatic paint application, and the figure resembles a skull. Munch feels isoaltion, lonely, depression, disillusionment. Pessimistic view of humanity, esp. women. Munch was also a printmaker. Highly subjective/personal. Volcano Krakatoa erupted in 1890s, right around this time, so some relate the painting to the terrifying view of nature.
    • Auguste Rodin. Burghers of Calais. Bronze.
    • Late 19th c Sculpture. Rodin won commission from city of Calais. Monument meant to celebrate 100 Years War event. These citizens were viewed as heros. Trying not to seccumb to Edward III's power, but in the winter, food runs scarce. Edward says to send the top 6 citizens to be killed, and the rest of them will be spared. Their pose makes them look like antiheroes; weight of their fate depicted in hands, feet, and head; aka they look scared. Attention drawn to enlarged hands, feet and head. His work is vant garde. Faces keep with the trend of Expressionism. Life-size in the round. In history, though, their lives were spared by the intervention of the Queen, claiming their deaths would be a bad omen to her unborn child.
  4. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Jane Avril. Lithograph. Late 19th c Sculpture. Art Nouveaus. Jaonisme. Henri hung out with the night life and ciruc performers. Alcoholic, druggie, and he was a dwarf. Claim to fame was advertisements or posters for the singers and dance of various bars and clubs. Often uses lithography. Revolutionizes advertisement by seeling more through imagery rather than text. Art nouveau bec of emphasis on outline, lines with elegant curving quality. Bleak view of sapce lends to Japonisme. He moves twoard trend of "sex sells." Jane Avril was a personal friend, he elevates them to celebrity level.
    • Henri Matisse. The Joy of Life. 1905-1906. Fauvism. Figures in a landscape, most of them are nude, and these figures are either feminine or androgynous. With this painting there is emphasis on sensuality, carefree state of man, in sort of Eden setting. Turning away from contemporary world, away from society, and embracing a more simplified way of life. Quite similar to Goghen in that respect. Color pallet is overall light and bright. Black outline does define some of the forms, but in other instances color is used to outline shape and form. Harmonious composition in the way that the curving of the trees
    • and landscape echoes that of the figures. Although he does setup a difference in scale between figures in the foreground, and those in the middle distance,
    • any sense of depth is underlined by his use of color in the background. With this particular image, his brushwork is fairly fluid, not as visible in some of
    • his other works. Some broken brushwork present though. Again, color not used
    • naturally.
    • Kathe Schmidt Kollwitz. The Outbreak. From the Peasants’ War series 1903. Etching. German Expressionism. Subjective emotions emphasis.
    • Printmaker exclusively, tended to work in etching as her printed medium. Also tended to produce series. Wanted to use prints as a way to affect social
    • change, impact social consciousness. Her political views were communist and socialist, married a doctor in Berlin who was dedicated to caring for poor in
    • the slums of Berlin. Saw work of Monk and was much influenced by him, admired the emotional impact of his prints and paintings, and wanted to capture that same sort of tone in her own work. The Outbreak is one of a series of seven. Evokes a number of ideas: peasant rebellion in Germany which occurred around 1525 which was one of the largest
    • popular uprising before the French Revolution, and was taken as a model of rebellion in the contemporary moment for questioning government and the rules of society. This rebellion was not successful though. It was violently suppressed. Draws attention to who is impacted by rebellion and revolt. Asks what the cost of war is, which is often human life. The human lives most often
    • sacrificed in war are the lower class who have no one else to fight for them. Central image in etching has her arms raised and seems to be in sighting and spurring on the running figures, who are clearly peasant class based on their apparel.
    • Kollwitz is placing marks in very jagged configurations to suggest movement. It
    • is as if she is violently making marks on the ground and in the figures. Although we have a sort of slightly more positive presentation of this united
    • group of people, overall the tone of the series is very somber and pessimistic. Two of the series are actually in the Spencer museum.
    • Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Street, Berlin. 1913. Unnatural use of color; pink streets, faces are pink and green and blue. Garishness to his
    • overall use of color. Brush work is very visible. Overall angularity and jaggedness to color and form. Purposeful distortion of space and figures to
    • draw attention to anxiety and alienation of people in urban societies. Females are prostitutes, depicted as a bad thing here. Problematic sexuality, yet again. Overall uncomfortablness of color by way that ground line is tilted to make it seem that figures could almost spill out into the viewer. Confrontational image in that effect. Pointing out
    • the ills of society because he wants the future to be different than the present, he sees his art as a bridge to make that move happen. With Kirchner
    • and the other Die Brucke looked to African arts, and like the simplified forms of Oceanic and African art. Kirchner joins army, but has nervous breakdown and
    • is released in 1915. By 1937 he is one of those artist with many works displayed in Degenerate Art Exhibit of the Nazis, which had about 650
    • paintings. Kirchner committed suicide right before WWII.
    • Franz Marc. Large Blue Horses. 1911. Der Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider) was group of artist which he was a part of. Est about 1911, nine artist exhibit together in this exhibition. Publish almanac that articulate many of their conceptual and artistic beliefs and ideas. With this group, emphasis on spiritual dimension of art. Greater move toward abstraction and nonrepresentational imagery. Wanted to release art from world of visible things. Collectively the artist don’t look very similar, but share emphasis on
    • color, and color with symbolic and spiritual dimension. Franz marc in particular turns away from everyday world and embraces spiritual world, as well
    • as animal realm. Horses are powerful and masculine and embody sense of hope. Color contributes to that conception as well. Very specific color theory forwarded by blue rider group, proposing that
    • color is important aspect of iconography. Blue is masculine, hope, and strength. Yellow, femininity and happiness. Idea that animals are more attuned
    • to spiritual realm that can transport man to peace and happiness, is shown in the way that background echoes the shape of the horses. Use of color similar to Fauvism and Goghen, because color is not used naturally. There is a fairly positive outlook, kind of vibrancy, to his paintings, but that’s not to say he
    • wasn’t disillusioned with contemporary society. Part of the reason he paints horses and color is because of this disillusionment. Also worked in woodcut,
    • which shows similar energy and dynamism.
    • Vasily Kandinsky. Improvisation No. 30 (Cannons) 1913. Part of the Der Blaue Rieter Blue Rider group. Visually looks very different from Franz marc, but ascribes to same color theory and spiritual philosophy of art. Kandinsky believed in transcendental art to such a degree that he published a treatise of his ideas in 1911, Concerning the Spiritual in Art. Color directly influences the soul. Articulates a metaphor where he said the artist is the hand that plays the keys of a piano, and the keys that the artist plays is color. So the color can cause reverberations in the soul. Set up between music and color with Kandinsky. Just as music is often able to reverberate in your soul, suggests a transcendental nature, as he believes color can do the same
    • thing. Reflected in the titles which he chooses for his paintings. Sometimes line is fairly arbitrary. Use of color, but also arbitrary use of color. Color isn’t always filled in where you think it might make sense. With Kandinsky we
    • have an artist striding toward nonrepresentational art, meaning unrecognizable forms, nonfigural imagery. What inspires him is tied to, supposedly in 1910 he goes to his studio and has many canvases lined up along wall, and other artists works, and he doesn’t recognize it, and it is actually his own paintings, simply turned upside down. Looking at his own work in a different direction
    • prompts his shift to painting things like we see here. Although this move toward abstraction, there are some recognizable forms. Cataclysmic feel to this painting. Canons and church can be tied to kind of narrative element of this painting. Element of war, and kind of chaos of war, with hurried and frenzied lines. Church looks like Russian Orthodox Church. He is Russian.

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