World Religions Final Exam

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burntoutmatch
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122878
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World Religions Final Exam
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2011-12-12 15:46:46
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World Religions
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sufism, hinduism, buddhism, taoism
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  1. what, who are the sufi? explain origin of word and where sufism comes from
    The sufi are the mystical and psycho-spiritual dimention of Islam. they selflessly experience the actualization of truth. love and devotion are how the sufi live to attain truth-Triqat, the pathway to reaching God spiritually. Sufism comes from three words suf=wool, safa=purity, and sufiya=wisdom (greek). They dance, chant, and clap while wearing wool robes and seek pure wisdom (whirling).
  2. differences between sufism and islam
    The Sufi is a sector of the Islamic community and religion and preachs the koran but chose the heremitic way which was refused by the koran. they experience Ramaden and respect the 7 pillars etc but they are more spiritual and focus on reaching closer to Allah through love and devotion.
  3. main qualities of sufi
    a sufi must study and learn and also understand the concept of God as one. must prefer others to himself, travel alot, not accumulate material goods. encourage's vegetarianism, coherence, perseverance, respect, universal empathy, individual balance, patience, renouncing, sincerity, acceptance, conscious humbleness. guided by the adab, included food saying and rituals.
  4. explain seven steps of school of sufism. why is knowledge important?
    sound, light, number, letter, word, symbol, rhythym and symmetry. Knowledge is important because only through learning can one learn to curb their emotions and rid themselves of the superficial things in our world in order to fully understand the spiritualness of being one with God.
  5. origin of hinduism. when and where. explain different beliefs of hinduism (not everyone believes in the exact same thing, but it is still considered one religion). idea of polytheism vs monotheism. manifestation of brahman
    • Hinduism is the oldest of the world religions and the
    • third largest world religion. It began around the 4th BCE. It is highly focused on deities and with all the other deities being a manifestion of the supreme god; Brahman. There are many different ways of practicing hinduism that sometimes contrast one another, such as respect for nature and animals while others sacrafice animals. Hinduism is a collage of different faiths around the core essential concept of Reincarnation.
  6. main concept of hinduism.
    Karma- we are in charge of what our next life will be based upon our deeds in this life. Only by completely renouncing action and the external illusion of the world can we be free of karma, and thus find moksha, or release from reincarnation. Samsara: the perpetual cycle of repeated birth and death.
  7. explain the three multi pattern that unites brahma, shiva, and vishnu and explain what they represent.
    The trimurti (meaning three forms) consists of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma has the capacity to create things, Vishnu is the maintainer or preserver, and Shiva is the destroyer or transformer.
  8. explain the 2 main books of hinduism: veda, upanishads. explain concept of brahman.
    There are 4 Veda's which contain hymns, incantations, and rituals from ancient India. The rigveda is part of the veda, and is the most ancient book of knowledge, with over 1000 hymns. The Upanishads are a continuation of the Vedic philosophy, and were written between 800 and 400 B.C. They elaborate on how the soul (Atman) can be united with the ultimate truth (Brahman) through contemplation and mediation, as well as the doctrine of Karma. Upanisad means upa=close, ni=bottom, sad=sit, the one who received the secret law of the upanisad had to sit next to their masters.
  9. explain the 7 shakrah
    • Hinduism also has 7 chakras which illustrate the
    • energy levels at certain areas of the human body; The root chakra, sacral chakra, solar plexus chakra,
    • heart, throat, third eye chakra and the crown chakra.
  10. who was sidhartha.
    • Siddhartha's mother was Mahamaya, the daughter of the King Suddhodana somewhere in India. After Mahamaya dreamt a white elephant entered her side the priests said to her that she will give birth to a holy man or a great emperor. She gave birth to him in a forest holding onto a tree branch that lowered itself to help her. His father kept him from the outside world and only knew a world of joy. When he discovered poorness, illness, and death he abandoned his kingdom for an ascetic path but realised that suffering was not the way and found the middle way.
    • He changed his name to Buddha after he became enlightened.
  11. main concepts of buddhism
    nirvana - state of being free without suffering. to reach this you must follow the following paths.

    • 4 Noble Truths:
    • 1. Life means suffering: Suffering is inevitable in life; we suffer from tragedy, sadness, pain, etc. We all succumb to death, loss of loved ones, etc.
    • 2. Attachment: craving and clinging, our attachment to impermeable objects and feelings inevitably lead to suffering as they will soon pass and are not eternal
    • 3. Nirodha: this is the concept of getting rid of all sense of attachment and cravings in order to reach bliss
    • 4. Balance: The path to avoid suffering is best reached by being in between the two extremes; between hedonism and asceticism.

    • The 8 Fold Path:
    • 1. Right View: this entails seeing things as they truly are, uncorrupted and balanced and understood according with the 4 Noble Truths.
    • 2. Right Intention: moral intentions of meaning well and ethical self improvement
    • 3. Right Speech: to speak honest, in warm tone, to not tell lies or boast, etc
    • 4. Right Action: good deeds involving bodily actions
    • 5. Right Livelihood: earning money through righteous means
    • 6. Right Effort: the righteous mental effort behind your deeds
    • 7. Right Mindfulness: the ability to see things clearly with a clear conscious
    • 8. Right Concentration: the concentration on a particular way of being, objective through a clear conscience
  12. what does zen, chan mean? what is zen buddhism, short stories called koan.
    Zen Buddhism focuses on spirituality without scriptures or words and focuses on the reconnection of you with nature. It focuses on seeing things as they are, experiencing as they are without opinion or views, but neutral to everything.

    Zen is a school of Buddism and is from the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese word Chán which means "meditation" or "meditative state."

    Koan are short stories or sayings that help people think, and become closer to englightment. For example "Two hands clap and there is a sound; what is the sound of one hand?"
  13. concept of emptiness, negative or positive, explain
    • "form is emptiness; emptiness is form". For example, a cup, whether full or not, is always full or always empty. It depends on the combination of function, use, shape, base material, and the cup's other aspects. Only if all these conditions exist simultaneously does the mind impute cupness to the object. If one condition ceases to exist, for instance, if the cup's shape is altered by breaking it, the cup forfeits some or all of its cupness, because the object's function, its shape, as well as our perceived definition as to what a cup is, is disrupted. The cup's existence thus depends
    • on external circumstances. Its physical essence remains elusive.
  14. compare taoism to confuscianism
    Taoism and Confucianism are two of China’s oldest and most pervasive philosophies. Confucianism is a system of ethics, and Tao is a path of behavior.
  15. what is taoism, how does confuscianism give taoism structure?
    Taoism means “path” and began around the 4th to 6th BCE with Lao Tze, over lapping with Confucius. Focus: Balance and reconnecting to nature.
  16. significance of the yin and yang, explain
    • Taoism is heavily focused on balance and this is
    • represented through their symbol of the yin yang. The yin yang (tao) represents a balance between opposite forces and that without the other there is no balance, you cannot have light without dark, male without female, hot without cold, etc. the yin is the more feminine sign, more relaxed-night. While the yang represents the more energetic forces, male, sunlight etc.
  17. importance of nature and importance of Wei-wu-Wei, explain
    Wei-wu-wei means action without action. Taoism finds nature very important as it is nature that is original and correct and that we must reconnect with nature. Through Wu Wei, action less activity, we can be brought closer to the original spirituality from nature. It is by doing an effortless activity that will trigger a natural result, wu wei is the force of doing nothing contrary to nature. If you want to give everything, then give everything up.

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