final study guide pt.3

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GeorgieKay
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122880
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final study guide pt.3
Updated:
2011-12-11 23:16:40
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radiology imaging
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neil dan john > JuJu
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  1. What is the purpose of the grid?

    A. protects patient from scatter
    B. improves density and absorbs scatter after hitting the image recpetor.
    C. improves contrast and absorbs scatter before hitting the image receptor.
    D. Nutella pizza
    C. improves contrast and absorbs scatter before hitting the image receptor.
  2. As a general rule, the grid is employed when...

    A. part thinness > 10 cm , kVp > 60
    B. part thickness < 10 mm , Kvp > 60
    C. part thinness > 10 mm , kvP < 60
    D. part thickness > 10 cm , KvP >60
    D. part thickness > 10 cm , KvP >60
  3. What is the grid composed of?


    radiopaque lead strips separed by radiolucent interspace material. (aluminum or plastic)
  4. What is grid ratio?
    Height of lead strips divided by thickness of interspacing material. Grid Ratio = H/D
  5. What is grid frequency?

    A. Wavelength of the x-ray
    B. radio frequency
    C. # of lead strips per inch or cm.
    D. # of Al. strips per in or cm.
    • C. # of lead strips per inch or cm.
    • Frequency Range
    • - 60-200 lines/in.
    • - 25-80 lines/cm
  6. Grids that are made by placing two linear grids on top of each other are called?

    A. criss-crossed
    B. cross-hatched
    C. Parallel
    D. both A and B
    D. Both A and B
  7. What type of grid pattern is more commonly used in clincal practice?

    A. Focused
    B. Linear
    C. Parallel
    D. Criss-crossed
    E. Cross-Hatched
    D. linear
  8. What type of grid is desgined to match the divergence of the beam?

    A. Parallel grids
    B. Linear grids
    C. Focused linear grids
    D. Parallel linear grids
    D. Focused linear grids
  9. What is the convergence line?
    Any horizontal line along which horizontal convergence of the airflow is occurring. Also known as asymptote of convergence.
  10. What is focal range?
    Focus grid will identify the focal range within, which the tube should be located. Short, medium, Long range.
  11. What is grid cut-off?

    A. Dark spots on image
    B. Undesirable absorption of primary beam.
    C. Undesirable absorption of secondary beam.
    D. A broken grid.
    B. Undesirable absorption of primary beam.
  12. What are the grid conversion factors?
    • Required increase in techique can be calculated.
    • GCF= Mas with grid / mas without grid
  13. What is grid selectivty?

    A. Picking which grid is the best for an x-ray
    B. Rasict grids.
    C. Hamburger Helper
    D. Allows primary radiation to reach image receptor and prevent scatter.
    D. Allows primary radiation to reach image receptor and prevent scatter.
  14. What is contrast Improvement Ability?

    A.The K factor
    B. Compares contrast of image with grid to contrast without grid.
    C. Ranges from 1.5 to 3.5
    D. All of above
    D. All of above
  15. What is "off-level" grid error?

    The tube is leveled at the long axis of the grid strips and causes overall grid cut-off.
  16. What is "off-center" grid error?
    Not centered on the grid and causes overall grid-cutoff. Results in too light on image.
  17. What is "off-focus" grid error?
    Using the incorrect SID for focused grid. Causes a dark center with lighter peripheryy. Cutodd at sides.
  18. What is "upside-down"grid error?
    If you turn it upside down then servere peripheral grid cutoff will occur.
  19. What is air-gap technique?
    An alternate to grid use. 10" air gap has similar clean up of 15:1 grid.
  20. What is the base of film composed of?
    • Glass plates were original material. Wet and dry plates.
    • Cellulose nitrate in 1889, cellulose acetate in 1924, polyyester in 1960, anti-crossover in 1990.
  21. What is emulsion composed of?

    A. Potassium Bromite
    B. Aluminuin chromaide
    C. Carbon Dioxide
    D. Silver halide crystals
    D. Silver halide crystals
  22. What are the silver halides used in radiographic film?

    A. Maintain the film
    B. Protect it from dust and scratches
    C. To produce images
    D. To help wash chemicals
    C. To produce images
  23. What is the purpose of adhesive?

    A. Glue
    B. Washing
    C. drying
    D. protectoin
    A. glue
  24. What is the purpose of supercoat?

    A. protects emulsion from damage
    B. protects emulsoin from heat
    C. keeps it in style
    D. protects it from dust and dirt
    A. protects emulsion from damage
  25. During what stage of film manufacturing is silver bromide crystal production accomplished?

    A. Reproduction
    B. Manufacturing
    C. Ionzing
    D. Washing
    B. manufacturing
  26. What is the sensitivty speck composed of?

    A. Brown silver sulfide
    B. Silver sulfite
    C. Gold silver sulfate
    D. Gold silver sulfide
    D. gold silver sulfide
  27. During what stage of film manufacturing are silver halide crystals allowed to grow?

    A. Production
    B. Distribution
    C. Ripening

    D. Reproduction
    C. Ripening
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Faster film has _______ silver halide crystals.

    A. Big
    B. Small
    C Black
    D Both A and B
    A. Big
  29. High detail has _________ silver halide crystals.

    A. Big
    B. Small
    C. Black
    D. Both A and B
    B. Small
  30. What is added to the emulsion during the mixing stage of film manufacturing?

    A. Colored dyes
    B. Hardeners
    C. Bactericides
    D. Antifogging agents
    E. All of the above
    E. all of the above
  31. What is the panchromatic film?

    A. Sensitive to green spectrum
    B. Sensitive to all colors
    C. Sensitive to the red spectrum
    D. Both A and B
    B. Sensitive to all colors
  32. What is orthochromatic film?

    A. Sensitvie to green spectrum
    B. Sensitive to all colors
    C. Not Sensitive to the red spectrum
    D. Sensitvie to the Red spectrum
    C. Not sensitive to the red spectrum
  33. Desribe the latent image formation according to Gurney-Mott.
    • 1.Photons interact with silver halide crystals, which frees electons.
    • 2. Electrons migrates to sensetitvity speck.
    • 3. Silver ion is attracted.
    • 4. Accepts electron and becomes metallic silver.
    • 5. Process continoues untill all silver is metallic.
  34. What is direct or non-screen film used for?

    A. NDT
    B. Extreme high radiation
    C. Industrial non-destructie testing
    D. All of the above
    D. all of the above
  35. Film should be stored at a temp of ___ degrees F or lower at al times.

    A. 70
    B. 58
    C. 68
    D. 92
    C. 68
  36. Film storage humidity must be maintained at ____% to ____%.

    A. 50, 60
    B. 30, 40
    C. 25, 45
    D. 30, 60
    D. 30, 60
  37. What infomation must be permantly recorded on the radiograph?
    Date, Patient name, insitustion, referring physican, patient indentification #, examination ordered and order #.
  38. What are the four primary steps in automatic processing?

    A. Delevoping, washing, fixing, drying
    B. Drying, washing, fixing, delevoping
    C. Fixing, drying, delevoping, washing
    D. Delevoping, Fixing, washing drying
    D. Delevoping, Fixing, washing drying
  39. State all the chemicals in the developer and list their functions.
    • Phenidone-Works quickly to produce shades of gray.
    • hydroquine-works slowly to produce black areas.
    • sodium carbonate- maintain alkaine pH
    • potassium bromide- distraction to overactive reducers
    • glutaraldehyde-controls swelling of gelatin
  40. State all the chemicals in the develper and list their function.
    • Anmonium thiosulfate- clearing agent
    • Arectic acid- maintains acidic pH
    • Aluminum chloride, chromiun alum, potassium alum-same purpose as delevopler hardner.
    • sodium sulfate - perservative

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