Politics Final

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Politics Final
2011-12-11 21:21:42
campaigns elections congress presidency judiciary

Campaigns, Elections, Congress, the Presidency & the Judiciary
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  1. open primary
    an election in which a voter can participate in either party's primary but not both, regardless of party registration
  2. closed primary
    an election in which only registered members of a political party can participate in the party's primary election
  3. caucus
    a small meeting at which registered political party members select delegates to attend the national party convention and nominate a presidential canidate
  4. general election
    a regularly scheduled local, state, or national election in which voters elect officeholders.
  5. front loading
    The practice of scheduling state party caucuses and state primary elections earlier and earlier in advance of the general election
  6. party conventions
    meeting of delegates of a political party at the local, state, provincial, or national level to select candidates for office and to decide party policy
  7. delegates
    individuals who represent a stae's voters in the selection of a political party's presidential candidate
  8. electors
    a qualified voter in an election
  9. the electoral college
    the meeting, in each state and the district of columbia, of electors who cast votes to elect the president
  10. the electorate
    all the people entitled to vote in an election
  11. nominating campaign
    competition within the parties
  12. general election campaign
    competition between the parties
  13. momentum
    the boost in media coverage, name recognition, fundraising, and perceptions of electability that accompanies unexpected and repeated primary success
  14. invisible primary
    the race to raise the most money and achieve frontrunner status before the primary season begins
  15. soft money
    funds to be used for political purposes other than running a campaign, for example get out the vote efforts
  16. hard money
    funds to be used for the express purpose of running an election campaign, or advocating for or against the election of a specific candidate
  17. issue advocacy ads
    Communicating a message to voters about a particular issue. Cannot advocate for or against a particular candidate. From soft money. Do not have to disclose spending to FEC
  18. independent expednditure ads
    • Groups/individuals can spend unlimited amounts of money advocating election or defeat AS LONG AS these expenditures are not coordinated with the candidate or party campaigns. Sources of funds and amounts spent are
    • disclosed.
  19. public funds
    taxpayer funds used to help finance presidential campaigns
  20. matching funds
    public monies given to qualifying candidates to match a certain percentage of the funds they have raised from private donors
  21. coordinated expenditures
    legally limited purchases or payments made by a political party on behalf of, and in coordination with, a specific campaign
  22. prospective voting
    voting style in which voters judge a candidate based on their assessment of what the candidate will do in office if elected
  23. retrospective voting
    voting style in which voters judge candidates based on the performance of the candidates or their parties rather than issue stands and assessments of what each candidate would do if elected
  24. apportionment
    how district lines are drawn. if states gain/lose in population, they gain/lse House seats
  25. packing
    concentrate group in 1 district to limit influence
  26. cracking
    split group into multiple districts thereby dispersing power
  27. baker v. carr
    one person, one vote finally established. Court determined that malapportionment violates the Constitution. Rural interests lost their dominance of state legislatures.
  28. gerrymandering
    drawing of district lines to benefit a political party or group.
  29. racial gerrymandering
    Drawing a district to favor one racial group over others.
  30. majority minority districts
    districts in which racial minorities would have a majority
  31. informal powers of the president
    increasing rule making power, power of persuasion, going public
  32. casework
    the direct assistance that members of congress give to individuals and groups within a district or state
  33. incumbency
    the individual in an election who currently holds the contested office. once you are in office, that position helps you stay in office
  34. term limits
    restrictions that exist in some states about how long as individual may serve in an elected office
  35. trustee
    the type of representation by which representatives are elected to do what they think is best for their constituents.
  36. delegate
    the type of representation by which representatives are elected to do the bidding of the people who elected them; represatives are delgates in that they share the same policy positions as the voters and promise to act upon them
  37. speaker of the house
    the person who presides over the house and serves as the chamber's official spokesperson
  38. cloture
    a mechanism by which 60 or more senators can end a filibuster and cut off debate
  39. log rolling
  40. committee chairs