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A decrease in correctional officer to inmate violence led to what development in prisons during the 1980’s?
Gang wars in prison/ prisoners controlling the prison.
In what state prison system
were “tune-ups” & “lessons” administered to inmates?
- Involved verbal humiliation, profanity, shoves, kicks, and head and body slaps.
What is the Tucker telephone?
an electrical device attached to the genitals of inmates that deliverd sever shocks; formerly used at an Arkansas prison firm.
What is the interdependence that may develop
between correctional officers & inmates that is characterized by favoritism?
What was the effect of the Prison Litigation
Reform Act of 1996?
Limited attorney fees; curtailed the ability of inmates to file lawsuits and made it nearly impossible for courts to order consent decrees/injunctive relief
1. The prisoners’ rights era of the 1970’s gave way to the _____________ era of today, where courts are more
apt to defer to prison officials.
What has the Supreme Court ruled concerning the execution of someone who committed a crime when he/she was under the age of 18?
Cruel and unusual
What does the evidence indicate concerning
private prisons saving money for state governments?
Reap large profits with inhuman conditions/ they are the same costs
How would the veil of
ignorance be applied to the rules of punishment?
The people who are sentencing should believe that they are on the same level as the offender, instead of feeling superior and lengthening the sentence.
Which ethical system is consistent with restorative justice?
Ethics of justice
Has the Supreme Court overturned the use of
what is pluralistic ignorance?
the prevalent misperception of the popularity of a belief among a group because of the influence of a vocal minority.
What type of correctional
officer is perceived as sympathetic to inmates?
What is stigmatizing shaming?
the effect of punishment whereby the offender feels cast aside and abandoned by the community.
1. The Eighth Amendment to the
Constitution protects all Americans from _____.
cruel and unusual
Ethical formalism is most consistent with a ________ form of punishment.
Which ethical system can be used to support the 3 rationales of
punishment including deterrence, incapacitation, and/or treatment?
Detaining only those who are
at the highest risk of offending or re-offending is referred to as
Which form of prevention is
aimed at people other than offenders?
Penal harm refers to
The idea that the system intentionally inflicts pain on offenders during their imprisonment or punishment, because merely depriving them of liberty is not sufficiently painful.
The _______ model of
punishment argues that punishment should be purely retributive and balanced to
the seriousness of the crime.
Which type of sentencing is based on the seriousness of the crime & is consistent with retributive punishment?
Just deserts: Fogel's conceptulization that the punishment of an individual should be limited by the seriousness of the crime, although treatment could be offered.