a&p nine weeks test 1

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a&p nine weeks test 1
2011-12-11 21:57:08

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  1. organizational levels of living things
    atoms, molecules, cells, organs, organ systems, organisims
  2. anatomical postistion
    body erect with feet parallel and arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward
  3. anatomy
    the science of the structure of living things
  4. physiology
    the science of the function of licing things
  5. superior
    refers to the head or upper body
  6. inferior
    pertaining to a postition ner the tail end of the long axis of the body
  7. ventral
    anterior or front
  8. dorsal
    pertaining to a position near the tail end of the long axis of the body
  9. distal
    farthest from the point of attachment
  10. proximal
    toward the attached end of a limb of the origin of a structure
  11. medial
    toward the midline of the body
  12. antecubial
    anterior surface of the elbow
  13. brandal
    pertaining to the arm
  14. carpal
    one of the eight bones of the wrist
  15. occipital
    pertaining to the area at the back of the head
  16. dorsal
    pertianing to the back; prosterior
  17. thoracic
    refers to the chest
  18. synovial membranes
    membrane that lines the scpaule of a synovial joint (non epithelial)
  19. epidermus
    the outer layers of the skin; epithelium
  20. melanin
    the dark pigment synthesized by melanocytes, responsible for skin color
  21. functions of the skin
    protects deeper tissues from mechanical damage (bumps), chemical damage (acids and bases), bacterial damage, ultraviolet radiation (damaging effects of sunlight), thermal (heat or cold) damage, dessication (drying out), acids in body heat loss, aids in excreation of urea and uric acid, synthesizes vitamin d
  22. pili muscles
    when the muscles contractm the hair is pulled upright and this action helps keep animals warm by adding a layer of insulating air to the fur
  23. sweat glands
    they are supplied with nerce endings that cause them to secrete sweat when the external temperature or body temperature is high
  24. ABCD rule in diagnosing melanomas
    • A- asymmetry- the two sides of the pigmented spot do not match
    • B- border irregularity- the borders of the lesion are not smooth but exhibit indentations
    • C- colo- the pigmented spot contains areas of different colors
    • D- diameter- the spot is larger than 6mm in diameter/ infection
  25. yellow marrow
    cavuty of the shaft, primarily a storage area for adipose
  26. epiphysealplate
    flat plate of hyaline cartilage, seen in a young growing bone
  27. osteoblasts
    bone forming cells
  28. lacunae
    cavities within the matrix (where osteosystes are found)
  29. greenstick fracture
    bone breaks incompletely, common in children
  30. chief minerals stored by bone, ossification, what tissues form the model of bones
    calcium and phosporus/ bone formation/ hyaline cartilage
  31. axial skeleton
    skill, vertibrial column, rib cage
  32. aphiarthroses
    a slightly movable joint
  33. synarthroses
    an immovable joint
  34. diarthroses
    a freely movable joint
  35. skeletal muscle
  36. cardiac muscle
    involuntary- straited
  37. smooth muscle
    involutary- non-striated
  38. sarcomere
    contractile unit
  39. myosin
    one of the principal contractile proteins found in muscle
  40. neuromusclular junction
    the region where a motor nueron comes into close contact whit a skeletal muscle
  41. acetylcholine
    a chemical transmitter substance released by certain nerve endings
  42. actin
    a contractile protein of muscle
  43. perimysium
    the connective tissue enveloping bundles of muscles fibers
  44. levels of structure of muscles from smallest to largest
    sarcomere, myofilaments, myofibril, muscle fiber, fasicle
  45. naming muscles
    direction of fibers, size of the muscle, location, number of origins, location of origin and insertion, shape, action
  46. cenral nervous system
    brain and spinal cord
  47. peripheral nervous system
    spinal and cranial nerves
  48. micoglial cells
    scattered throughout the central system, digest debris or bacteria
  49. oligodenrocytes
    provide inculation (myelin) around the axons
  50. astrocytes
    connect blood vessels to neurons exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide from the blood brain barrier
  51. ependymal cells
    form a membrane that covers brain like parts - reduce cerebrospinal fluid
  52. schwann cells
    form the insulating myelin sheath around neurons of the PNS
  53. synapse
    the region of communication between neurons
  54. neurotransmitter
    chemical released by neurons that may, upon binding to receptors of neurons or effector cells, stimulate or inhibit them
  55. gyrus
    an outward fold of the surface of the cerebral cortex
  56. sulcus
    a furrow on the brain, less deep than a fissure