Bio Lecture 1

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lledbetter.14
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Bio Lecture 1
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2011-12-12 02:34:08
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Lecture test 1
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  1. Non - Amniotes
    • Jawless fishes (formerly Agnatha)
    • - Hagfish: Myxinoidea
    • - Lamprey: Petromyzontoidea
    • Chondrichthyes:
    • - Sharks
    • - Rays
    • - Ratfishes (Chimera)
    • Osteichtyes (Bony fish)
    • - Actinopterygians (ray fin) > 27,000 species
    • - Sarcopterygians (lobe fin or fleshy-fin)
    • Amphibians
    • - Salamanders (urodela)
    • - Frogs (anura)
    • - Caecilians (gymnophiona)
  2. Actinopterygians
    • Ray finned fish
    • Chondrostei - Primitive fish
    • - Sturgeon
    • - paddlefish
    • - bichir
    • Neopterygii - modern ray finned fish
    • - Gar
    • - Bowfin - Amia calva
    • - Teleostei - Virtually all fish species
  3. Surinam Toad
    • Pipa Pipa
    • South American - Amazon Region
    • Unique parental care -
    • - Fertilized eggs are embedded in back of mother
    • - sink into pockets and covered with skin
    • - eggs develop through the tadpole stage in the back of the moter
    • - Hatch as small frogs (froglets)
  4. Amniotes
    • Sauropsid Amniotes
    • - Testudinia - Turtles
    • - Lepidosauria - Tuatara, Lizards, Snakes
    • - Crocodilia - alligators and crocodiles
    • - Birds (aves)
    • --dinosaur lineage that evolved flight in the Mesozoic Era
    • Synapsid Aminotes
    • - Mammals
  5. Synapsid Aminotes
    • Mammalia
    • - Placental mammals (also eutheria)
    • - Marsupials (also metatheria)
    • - Monotermes (also prototheria)
  6. Placental mammals (Eutheria) include
    • Ungulares (mammals with hoofs)
    • - Perissodactlys (odd number of toes) example - horse
    • - Artiodactlys (even number of toes) example - pigs, deer and cattle
    • Rodentia (rodents)
    • - beaver
    • - mouse
    • - rat
    • Lagomorpha
    • - rabbit
    • - hares
    • - pika
    • Lipotyphla
    • - Shrews
    • - moles
    • - hedgehogs
    • Chiroptera
    • - bats
    • Cetacea
    • - whales
    • - dolphins
    • Carnivora
    • - foxes
    • - wolves
    • - dogs
    • - cats
    • - weasels
    • - raccoon
    • - seals
  7. Pleistocene Extinction
    • 2.5 million - 11,700
    • Encompassed many large, terrestrial mammals "Pleistocene megafauna"
    • example - mammoths and mastodons
    • Human expansion - hunting? disease? climate change? asteroid impact? or some combination?
  8. On what islands did many species become extinct more recently with the arrival of humans -
    • New Zeland : Maori arrived 800 years ago
    • Hawaii, Ploynesians arrived 1,700 years ago
    • Madagascar arrivals began 2,000 years ago
    • and through exploration fron the 15th - 20th centuries
    • example -
    • - Mauritis (the dodo in mid 17th century)
    • - Hawaii (even more species)
  9. Discuss the 2010 Internation Union for the Conservation of Nature list and their strategies -
    • 1 in 5 vertebrate species listed as threatened
    • 25% of mammal species
    • 41% of amphibian
    • Strategies -
    • - Capitive breeding to maintain genetic diversity
    • - elimintating pollutants
    • -- DDT used as an insecticide post WW2, banned in the USA in 1972, especially damaging to bird reproduction (thin eggshells
    • --Bald eagle almost extinct in US and Canada in 1960s, since 2007 no longer threatened
  10. Phylum Chordata
    • Chordates
    • Shared Features (some appear only during embryonic development)
    • Notochord
    • Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
    • Muscular, postanal tail
    • Pharynxwith gill slits
  11. Vertebrate Features (500 mya, Cambrian Period)
    • Carnium (skull) surrounding a large head, complex sensory equipment
    • Muscular Pharynx
    • Mobility
    • Vertebrae (of bone or cartilage) form around notochord/nerve cord
    • - in hagfish (jawless fish), no vertebrae
    • - In lamprey, only rudimentrary vertebrae made of cartilage
  12. Bone
    • Mineralized tissue
    • Other mineralized tissue includes enamel and dentine of teeth
    • Two types of bone -
    • - dermal bone formed in the skin used to form an exoskeleton, now just the skull
    • - Endochondral bone formed inside cartilage
  13. Vertebrate Features - Innovations
    • Cranium (skull) with large brain and complex sense organs
    • Muscular pharynx
    • Gill (pharyngeal) arches of cartilage
    • Gills primarily for respiration
    • Muscles pump water over gills and through pharynx
    • Muscular gut (peristalsis)
    • Ventral heart pumps blood (3 chambers initially)
    • closed circulatory system (capillaries)
    • Blood transport gases (red blood cells with hemoglobin) - O2 from gills to organs, CO2 back to gills
    • Kidney keeps body more dilute than seawater
    • Mobility (in most fishes contacting muscles on either side of stiff notochord/vertebral column)
    • Bone - Demal bone vs. endochondral bone
    • Vertebrae (of bone or cartilage) form around notochord/nerve cord
  14. Extant Jawlss Vertebrates
    • Formerly Agnatha
    • Hagfish - Myxinoidea
    • - .5m long, "eel skin" wallets
    • - lack vertebrae - probably not ancestral to jawed fishes
    • - deep water, eyes degenerate
    • - scavenge dead or dying vertebrates
    • - body fluid same dilution as seawater
    • Lampreys - Petromyzontoidea
    • - tiny vertebral structures
    • - mostly parasitic, max 1 meter
    • - tidal ventilation - draw water in and out through gills
    • - larvae spend years as burrowing filter feeders
  15. Sea Lamprey
    • Petromyzon marinus
    • native to Lake Ontario, could not go up Niagra Falls
    • Threaten Great Lakes fisheries
    • Arrived in Lake Erie in 1921
  16. Early vertebrates were probably ocean dwellers -
    • - fossils of early vertebrates are all marine
    • - comparative - all chordates are marine
    • -- all non-vertebrate chordates and hagfish have body fluid same as seawater
  17. Ostracoderm
    • Early Jawless Vertebrate
    • Shell Skin
    • 10-50cm long
    • Diversified by 400mya
    • Small plates of dermal bone form head shield
    • Odontodes, dentine covered with enamloid (formed within the skin)
    • Probably ate small, soft prey
    • Most had a dorsal (i.e. back) fin
    • Co-existed with gnathostomes (jawed fishes) for 50 million years
    • Extinction in Late Devonian along with many marine invertebrates
  18. Gnathostomes
    • Jawed Vertebrates
    • Know from about 450 mya
    • Allowed new diets, like herbivory - increase in size
    • Can use jaw to grasp things - offspring, mates, pebbles, grass (new behaviors)
    • Jaw formed from Mandibular gill arch
    • Also have paired pectoral and pelvic fins (later to become limbs)
    • Evolution of teeth - arise from dermal bone, probably initially in the pharynx
    • two olfactory tracts leading to two nostrils (nares = holes in skull)
    • Vertebrae evolve from bony arches surrounding the nerve cord and notochord
    • ribs
    • lateral line canal - organs that snese vibration in water (lost in some adult amphibians and in aminotes)
    • Muscles in the eye for focus
    • Pancreas, stomach and spleen
    • Large cerebellum(in hindbrain)
  19. Gnathostome Taxa
    • By the Devonian 416 mya -
    • - Placoderms (extinct) - armored, probably ancestral
    • - Acanthodians (extinct) - similar to osteichthyians
    • - Chondrichthyans (extant)
    • - Osteichthyans (extant) - endochondrial bone, swim bladder/lung, Operculum (gill cover)
  20. Placoderm
    • "plate skin"
    • Sperate head and body plates
    • Widely varied morphology
    • Some like armored catfish
    • Includes 10 meter - long Dunkleosteus
  21. Acanthodians
    • Spines
    • Many paired fins
    • Sister taxa to modern bony fishes
  22. Challenges to life in water
    • need to maintain stable interior environment
    • ions cross freely between body and water
    • is the water more or less salty than the body? - different strategies for dealing
  23. Vertebrate Kidney
    • Removes salt, water and waste from the blood
    • Freshwater teleosts - do not drink, get extra salts from food
    • -most exchange of H2O and ions is in the gills (ions actively pumped in, also diffused out)
    • -Kidney reabsorb ions, produce lots of urine
    • Freshwater amphibians - also don't drink
    • - Actively take up ions from water through skin
    • Marine Teleosts - drink seawater
    • - Most exchange of H2O and ions is in gills (ions actively pumped out)
    • - low amounts of urine, but very concentrated
    • - ions = sodium, chloride
    • Marine Cartilaginous Fish - do not drink
    • - H2O, ions diffuse across gills
    • - low permeability to salt
    • - maintian internal concentration close to seawater, slightly more salty (=hyperosmodal)
    • - retain nitrogen compounds
    • - secrete saly fluid to rid extra ions
  24. Chondrichthyes
    • Sharks
    • Ratfish (Chimera)
    • Manta Ray
  25. Ratfish
    • Chimera
    • Single gill opening
    • up to 1.5m long
  26. Manta Ray
    • Ventral gills
    • rays 1 m - over 6 m long
  27. Chondrichthyes Facts
    • First fossils form the Early Devonian (416mya)
    • Key Characteristic - no bone in the endoskeleton
    • - Derived character (not ancestral to vertebrates)
    • Modern Looking sharks by the Jurassic (200 mya)
    • - Snout (overhangs mouth)
    • - Solid calcified vertebrae
    • - Thicker, more complex teeth
  28. tooth Whorl
    • All living and extinct sharks
    • Tooth replacement every week
  29. Sharks
    • Huge diversity in size (25cm to 12m or more)
    • Nearly all are top carnivores in their food chain
    • - Apex predator
    • Whale shark and basking shark are filter feeders
    • Chemoreception down to 1 part per 10 billion
    • Excellent low - light vision
  30. Shark Reproduction
    • Internal fertilization
    • Oviparity - egg hatches outside the moter
    • - 6 - 10 months to hatch
    • Viviparity - egg hatches within the mother
    • - Embryos feed on siblings/eggs
    • - Oviducts secrete milky substances in mouth and gills
    • - Yolk sac placenta
  31. Shark Conservation Issues
    • Long lifespan, relatively few offspring
    • Disruption of habitat - young prey to larger sharks
    • Fishing
    • - Shark Fin Soup ban in Caolifornia this week ( US 1 bowl = $100)
    • - Mako Shark Steaks
    • - Fish and Chips
  32. Skates and Rays
    • Dorsal - ventral flattening
    • enlarged pectoral fins
    • appear to be derived from extinct early sharks
    • skates - oviparous, rays - viviparous
    • eat primarily small invertebrates and fishes
  33. Ratfishes
    • Holocephali
    • Not well known
    • Deep water
    • Feeds on invertebrates
  34. Life in Water
    • Vertebrates evolved in water (currently 73% of Earth)
    • More than 50% of living species never left
    • Most water is saltwater
  35. Habitat variety
    From simple (open ocean = pelagic zone) to complex (coral reefs)
  36. Challenges to life in Water
    • Need to adjust buoyance, push through water
    • - fluid resistance, gravity not an issue
    • -streamlined shapes but can get very large
    • Need to maintain stable interior environment
    • - ions cross freely between body and water
    • Low O conent in water vs air
    • Loss of body heat into water
    • Water is also stable in temperature
    • - good usually, difficult to escape if too hot or cold
  37. Gills
    • Structures to exchange CO2 and O
    • In teleosts (derived ray-finned fish), gills are enclosed in opercular cavities
    • - covered by operculae (singular operculum)
    • - valves to keep water flowing correctly (in mouth, out gills)
    • buccal pumping - using mouth and operculae to pump water across gills
    • ram ventilation - no pumping, swim with mouth open
    • -example - some sharks, tuna, mackerel
    • two columns of gill filaments per gill arch
    • secondary lamellae - filaments where gas exchange takes place on the gill (microscopic, feathery)
    • Countercurrent exchange - blood flows through the lamallae opposite in direction to water flow (maximizes O)
  38. Oxygen from Air
    • some fish live in O-poor environments
    • storage for gulped air, structures include labyrinth in back of head (example bettas)
    • Lungs - may have evolved in freshwater placoderms
    • - develop from pharyngeal region of digestive tract
  39. Buoyancy
    • can use lungs as swim bladders (bichirs and teleosts
    • swim bladder located ventral to vertebral column
    • gas must be removed or added to the swim bladder as the fish swims up or down
    • - either through the gut (primitive)
    • - or though the blood (derived)
    • - rete mirabile
    • Chondritchthyes have no swim bladder
    • Use liver instead
    • Shark livers very dense in oil (may be 25% of body mass)
    • Nitrogen compounds in the blood less dense than water
  40. Senses
    • Vision - well developed eyes
    • Taste/Smell - taste bud organs in mouth, around head, anterior find
    • Olfactory organs on snout
    • salmon use smell to return to home stream
    • Touch - Internal ear sensitive to motion, gravity, sound, pressure
    • Neuromast Cells - clusters of hair or related cells on head and body
    • Lateral line system - neuromasts located on head and along body
  41. Lateral Line System
    • Senses movement and vibration in water
    • only in fish, amphibian larvae and aquatic amphibians
    • Two configurations of neuromasts -
    • - within tubular canals inset in the skin
    • - exposed in depressions in the epidermis
    • Hairs are set in the cupula
    • - gelantinous material in cupula - displacement bends hairs, triggers nerves
    • - provides information from all directions and along body
  42. Electricity
    • Electrical discharge from modified muscle cells (electrocytes)
    • some in defense/hunting, weakly electric in courtship
    • Electroreception
    • - especially know in sharks and rays
    • - can detect electric fields (modification of lateral line)
    • - detect prey ( can find hidden fish that can't be smelled or seen)
    • - Possible also for navigaion
  43. Solute
    • molecular dissolved in water or blood
    • primarilty saly ions, urea, small carbohydrates
  44. Osmosis
    water flows from a dilute solution to a more concentrated one
  45. Hyposmolal
    body has lower solute concentration than surrouding water
  46. Hyperosmolal
    body has higher solute concentration than surrounding water
  47. Stenohaline
    narrow tolerance of salt - either fresh or salt water
  48. Euryhaline
    wide tolerance of salt - tolerate both
  49. Osteichthyes
    • Begin in Late Silurain ( ~ 420 mya), many by mid Devonian ( ~ 400 mya)
    • - Devonian is known as the "Age of Fishes"
    • Two major groups of Osteichthyes can be seen in Devonian fossils
    • - anatomy of the fin ray
    • Unique to Osteichthyes is endochondral bone
    • - retain dermal bone
  50. Sarcopterygian
    • Fin rays extend from central bone
    • Class Sarcopterygii
  51. Actinopterygian
    • fin ray extends from base
    • Class Actinopterygii
  52. Class Sarcopterygii
    • lobe finned fish and derived tetrapods
    • - fishes - lungfishes, coelacanth
  53. Class Actinopterygii
    • Ray finned fish - most fishes are included here
    • Subclass Condrostei
    • - Bichirs, sturgeon, paddlefish
    • Subclass Neopterygii
    • Infraclass Holostei
    • - only 8 species, 7 gar and 1 bowfin (Amia Calva)
    • Infraclass Teleostei
    • - Everything else
  54. Lungfish
    • extant are freshwater
    • up to 1.5m long
    • African and S. American - Lungs
    • Australian - gills usually
  55. Coelacanth
    • Fossils unknow after Cretaceous
    • Thought to be extinct until 1938
    • Deep, off shore in the Indian Ocean
    • Also Indonesia
    • Fat-filled swim bladder with ossifised walls
  56. Actinopterygii
    • Ray-Finned fish
    • Subclass - Condrostei
    • Skeleton mostly cartilage (except Bichir)
    • Bichir - Africa
    • Sturgeon - Norther Hemisphere
    • Paddlefish - Mississippi River Valley and Yangtze River Valley (China
  57. Actinopterygii
    Subclass - Neopterygii
    • Infraclass - Holostei
    • Primitive fishes (only 8 species)
    • Temperate fresh and brackish water
    • gar - thick scales, few predators (alligator
  58. Infraclass Teleostei
    • Class Actinopterygii
    • Subclass Neopterygii
  59. Cichlids Family
    • Cichlidae
    • Diverse group of teleosts
    • all have pharyngeal bones fused into one bone with teeth
    • - pharyngeal jaws (evolved from gill arch)
    • species number between 1,300 - 3,000
    • popular in aquaria but also model species for evolution
    • parental care, including mouthbrooding
  60. Lake Malawi Cichlids
    • Very large and deep freshwater lake in the Great Rift Valley (east Africa)
    • Over 700 Species of cichlid = evolutionary radiation
    • Formed by plate tectonics - less than 2 million years old
    • cichlids live in every habitat (open water, lakebed, deep water etc)
    • some have color change and mimicry; sex change
    • model for how new species evolve
    • diversity of feeding forms - jaw/mouth morphology
    • - trophic specialization
    • occupy every part of the food web
    • feed on plankton, arthropods, algae, ectoparasites, fish eggs, fish
  61. Doral
    to the back
  62. Ventral
    to the front/belly
  63. Proximal
    Near to the trunk
  64. Distal
    Distant from the trunk
  65. Anterior
    to the head
  66. Posterior
    to the tail
  67. Lateral
    to the side
  68. Medial
    to the middle
  69. The Paleozoic Era
    • 542 - 251 mya
    • Era in which vertebrates arose and diversified
    • by 251 mya, first mammals, dinosaurs, crocodiles, and teleosts all evolved
    • Major Continental drift
    • - land mass contact changes
    • - Latitude shifts
  70. Continental Drift
    • Hypothesis inspired by the shape of South America and Africa
    • Formalized by Alfred Wegener
    • Supported by the theory of plate tectonics in the 1950's and 60's
  71. Mid Paleozoic
    Ample warm, shallow sea floor
  72. Late Paleozoic
    • Pangaea (one large continent)
    • Continental collisions
    • - formed the appalachians
  73. Pangaea
    • Huge, arid inlands with temperature extremes
    • (continental climate)
  74. Late Cambrian
    • 514 mya
    • Some modern tropical areas are polar (S. America)
    • Canada is in the Tropics
  75. Paleozoic Ecology
    • Terrestrial plants were ferns early
    • by end of period, lots of conifers
    • Large terrestrial vertebrates by end of Paleozoic
  76. Carboniferous Period
    • 359 mya
    • Huge forests created lots of atmospheric oxygen
  77. Permian/Triassic Extinction
    • Larges extinction event in history
    • 251 mya
    • 95% of all marine life
    • 12 families of fish
    • 27 tetrapod families (49%)
  78. Causes of the Permain/Triassic extinction
    • Know to have lower oxygen concentration in water, higher CO2 (more acid)
    • - Many species evolved in O - rich environment
    • Massive volcanic eruptions in Siberia
    • - Siberian Traps
    • - USA- sized area covered in Lava
    • Volcanic Eruptions - trigger global warming
    • - Dust clouds block sun - lower photosynthesis
    • -- initially colder than normal
  79. Climate change caused by Permain/Triassic Extinction
    • Volcanic Eruptions - Trigger global warming
    • CO2 and sulfur into the air, acid rain
    • Greenhouse effect begins
    • higher temperatures melt underwater frozen methane - feedback loop
    • Temperature increased about 6 degrees C
    • ---Took about 30 million years for life to recover diversity
    • Waters warmed at higher latitudes - distuption of ocean circulation
  80. Major Tetrapod survivor of the Perimain Extinction
    • Lystrosaurus
    • pig size
    • 2 canine teeth (dicynodont)
    • Therapsid = mammal-like reptile

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