U.S. and Canada

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  1. What was the climate like in the Great Plains?
    **Not completely flat; areas of dunes, badlands, and mountains.

    **Continental Climate.

    **Unpredictable; variable, extremes

    **Vast north to south temperature

    **Elevation varries
  2. What is the demographic characteristics of urban areas vs. rural areas?
    • ***Rural***
    • population loss,
    • Brain Drain=outmigrating of young people
    • Decline of birth rate
    • Access to medical services and businesses
    • Difficult to recruit doctors/dentists/pharmacists
    • Church and school consolidating
    • Wal-Mart impact
    • Increasing numbers of hispanics
  3. What is Karst?
    • Inland sea (200-65 mya) laid down limestone
    • Limestone=Karst topography
  4. What is an Aquifer?
    • Water-holding rock formations
    • Ogalla/high plains aquifer formed as Rocky Mts lifted
    • -Eroded material (Sand/Gravel) was carried east
    • Limestone and gravel = aquifer
    • Most irrigated corn supported by ogalla aquifer
    • Water level decline in the ogalla aquifer due to over irrigation
    • - Dryland farming has returned
  5. What is soil topography?
    • Supports one of the greatest natural grasslands of the world
    • **Tall grass prairie (east)
    • **Short prairie grass (west)
    • Mollisol Soils-most fertile in the world (Breadbasket soils)
    • Prairie ecosystem=natural compost pile
  6. What was the Dust Bowl?
    1930 season of over farming and drought
  7. What is the CRP?
    • Conservation Reservation Program
    • Oldest version-implemented after Dust Bowl
    • Current-established in 1985 farm bill
    • Paid farmers to retire poor farmland
    • 10 years Voluntary contracts
    • Primary Purpose-perserve soil, protect groundwater

    Additional Benefits-wildlife habitat, increased crop prices
  8. What was CPA aeres rise and fall?
    10 year contracts are ending
  9. Illinois CRP vs Cash Rent
    • More cost effective to Cash Rent
    • Most CRP is in the south
    • Rolling hills/poor soil
    • Not in competition with good cropland
  10. South Dakota CRP vs Cash Rent
    Cash rent rising due to effective irrigation and better crops
  11. Why are cash rental prices up?
    • Market demand
    • Government subsides
    • Exports-esp. Asia
    • Ethonols (Biofuels)
    • Feed/Food
  12. cP and mT air masses; weather systems (Fronts)
    • Weather Systems
    • **Great Plains-clashes between differing air masses

    • Fronts
    • **Cool/dry air (North/West)
    • **Warm, moist air (South)
    • **Driven by low pressure systems-counter clockwise rotating
  13. what is cT?
    Continental tropical--> hot, dry air from mexico (summer)
  14. What is cP?
    Continental Polar--> Cold, dry air from canada (Winter/Summers)
  15. What is mT?
    Maritime Tropical--> Warm humid air from west coast and Gulf (Winter/Summer)
  16. What is mP?
    Maritime Polar--> Cool, humid air from NW pacific and NE atlantic (Winter/Summer)
  17. What is severe weather and tornados?
    • Clashing warm and cold fronts
    • Tornados--->Violent windstorms that take the form of a rotating column of air or vortex

    Tornado Alley-->Great plains-Oklahoma, Nebraska, Texas, Kansas, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio

    • Mesocyclone
    • Wall Cloud/Funnel
    • Hook Echo
  18. River Regions; Irrigation; Flooding
    Missouri River-Heavily damned

    Platte River-Braided river=full of sediment

    Red River of the North-Flows North to Lake Winnipeg, Canada

    Snow melt from rockies creates flooding

    Important for irrigation/aquifer regeneration
  19. What is political economy of the meat packing industry; vertical integration?
    Labor disputes across the U.S. in the 1980s opened the doors for hispanic immigrants

    1975 -->70% of unionized $18/hour wage

    2008-->non-unionized $8/ hour wage
  20. Vertical Integration
    Implosion; a single entity controls all aspects of production

    • Benefits- consistency in inputs
    • - consistency of outputs
    • -wider profit margins=$$$
  21. Iowa Beef Processors (IBP)
    • Build facilities that do not require skilled labor
    • Build facilities located closer to cattle
    • **1960s**
    • Western cattle shipped east (Chicago,etc)
    • Moved by railed; caused stress and weight loss
    • Skilled laborers needed to keep profits up

    • **1970s**
    • Processing plants moved west
    • Decreased shipping costs
    • Boxed beef; repetitive, unskilled jobs
    • Increased (Illegal) hispanic laborers
  22. Big Four
    • Tyson
    • Cargill
    • JBS swift
    • Nation Beef
  23. Population Growth
    • Sparsley population yet fast-growing
    • 2000-2010
    • **U.S. grew by 9.7%
    • **IL=3.3%
    • **CO=16.9
    • **WY=14.1%
    • **ID=21.1%
  24. Drivers of change
    Amenities-->retirees and 2nd homes

    Boom and Bust Cycle--> mining and extractive activties

  25. Physical Geography of the Rockies
    Composed of discontinuous mt.ranges 2,000 miles long

    Example-->front ranges, sawatch range, San Juan Mts, Sangre de cristo

    Colorado Fourteeners-->54 Mt. peaks over 14,000ft

    Sculpted by geomorphic processes-->Tectonic uplift, volcanism, Glaciation, Fluvial activity

    Granite and Metamorphic Rock-->2.5 bil-543 mya, Ancient Mts. eroded down, covered by sea

    • 200mya-->tectonic forces broke N. Am from Europe
    • Collided with pacific plate
    • Columbia Orogeny

    • 65mya-->2nd Collision:Laramide Orogeny
    • Created today's Rockies
  26. U and V Shaped valleys?
    • Since formation=weathering
    • water-rainfall and rivers=V Shaped

    Alpine Glaciation=formed as glaciers descended from their accumulation zones = U SHAPED Valleys
  27. Climate and Elevation
    Elevation determines climate
  28. Continental Dived
    • Elevation dictates which way precipitation will flow
    • west=pacific ocean
    • east=Atlantic ocean, Gulf of mexico, hudson bay
    • Triple divide peak
    • **Glacier Nation Park
    • **water hitting the peak can flow into 3 water bodies
    • -Gulf of Mexico
    • -Hudson Bay
    • -Pacific Ocean
  29. What is a Rain Shadow?
    • Warm moist air from the west rises-Windward
    • Cools, condenses, and it cant "hold" it's moisture any longer

    East side of Mt. Range is very dry-Leeward
  30. Political Economy and Seasonal homes, tourism and amenities
    • Political Economy-->Most of eastern U.S. is within 5 miles of some type of road, rail, or water ways.
    • Settled early; used for agriculture
    • Much of the rockies are too steep, high, or dry for agriculture, though "ranching" is found.
    • Early settlers were drawn to: minerals, lumber, other natural resources.
    • Primary--> Teertiary/Quaternary (Never Secondary)
  31. Natural Amenities Scale
    Measure of the physical (Characteristics at a county) area that enhances the location as a place to live.

    High numbers of 2nd or vacation homes

    Drivers of sector change--> tourism, fishing, ski resorts, national parks
  32. What is forestry and logging, fires?
    Cutting cycle--Clean cut vs. selective harvesting, Regrowth or planting, Continue the cycle

    Pine Beetle Damage

    Forest Fires
  33. 3 Sub regions of California
    • Costal Mountains
    • Inferior Valley
    • High East Mountains
  34. Physical geography of California
    • 1-Coastal Mountains and Valleys
    • **Pacific Plate=North
    • **N.Am Plate=South
    • **Strike-Slip faults=San Andreas Fault

    Coast Ranges-Mostly horizontal movement, some vertical- Mts tend to be 2,000 to 4,000 ft tall

    • 2- Inferior Valleys
    • One giant valley (Central Valley) drained by 2 major rivers
    • Bakersfield(South) to redding(North)
    • Sacramento Valley and River
    • San Juaquin Valley and River

    • 3-High Sierra and Cascade Ranges
    • East of central valley
    • East face rises abruptly; west is gradual
  35. Minor Valleys of California
    Napa Valley-Leading wine-producing valley in N. Am

    Santa Clara Valley- Silicon Valley

    Salinas Valley-"San Jose" Major vegetable producing area

    San Fernado/Gabriel-L.A. and Hollywood
  36. Volcanism; Mt. Shasta
    Active Mt. Range--> ring of fire

    Mt. Shasta--> Stratovolcano, active volcano, last erupted 200 years ago
  37. California Climate
    Temp and Precipitation vary across the state and there is the far extremes

    Winters precipitation maximum-->Moderately cool temperature, low pressure dominates; brings moisture

    Summer precipitation minimum--> Long summers, warm/hot, high pressure dominates; little precipitation
  38. Water Resources
    • Import Water
    • 70% of precipitation falls in its Northern Mts
    • 80% of its population lives in the South and most agriculture takes place in dry regions
    • Control of water=control of california
    • Aquaducts
    • Irrigation became legal in 1887- The Wright Act
  39. Irrigation
    • Reliance on irrigation for stable agriculture
    • **Diversion of rivers mainly for agriculture
    • **Doctrine of prior appopriation: first come, first served
    • **Reclamation Act of 1902: Support for water works
    • 90% of crops are now grown using irrigation
    • 100% of L.A. population depends on importated water
  40. William Mulholland
    Irish immigrant who became chief of the L.A. water department and designed the 233 mile aqueduct from owens lake to L.A. in 1913. Referred to as "the man who saced L.A.". 4 Aqueducts servering L.A.
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U.S. and Canada
U.S. and Canada Final
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