Peripheral Nervous System

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  1. What is Guillain-Barre Syndrome
    • Demyelination of the peripheral nerves, progressive motor weakness and sensory abnormalities
    • Ascending paralysis
    • Result of a variety of related immune-mediated pathologic processes
  2. Clinical Manifestations of Guillain-Barre Syndrome
    • Muscle weakness and pain have abrupt onset; cause remains obscure.
    • Cerebral function or pupillary signs are not affected.
    • Cranial nerve involvement.
    • Autonomic dysfunction
    • Weakness and paresthesia begin in the lower extremities and progress upward toward the trunk, arms, and cranial nerves in ascending GBS.
  3. Interventions for Guillain-Barre Syndrome
    • Drug therapy
    • Plasmapheresis
    • Monitoring respiratory status and managing the airway
    • Managing cardiac dysfunction
    • Improving mobility and preventing complications of immobility
    • Managing pain
    • Promoting communication
    • Providing emotional support
  4. Plasmapheresis
    • Plasmapheresis removes the circulating antibodies assumed to cause the disease.
    • Plasma is selectively separated from whole blood; the blood cells are returned to the patient without the plasma.
    • Plasma usually replaces itself, or the patient is transfused with albumin.
  5. Myasthenia Gravis
    • Chronic disease characterized by weakness primarily in muscles innervated by cranial nerves, as well as in skeletal and respiratory muscles
    • Thymoma—encapsulated thymus gland tumor
    • Progressive paresis of affected muscle groups that is partially resolved by resting
    • Most common symptoms—involvement of eye muscles, such as ocular palsies, ptosis, diplopia, weak or incomplete eye closure
  6. tensilon testing for Myasthenia Gravis
    • Within 30 to 60 sec after injection of Tensilon, most myasthenic patients show marked improvement in muscle tone that lasts 4 to 5 minutes.
    • Prostigmin is also used.
    • Cholinergic crisis is due to overmedication.
    • Myasthenic crisis is due to undermedication.
    • Atropine sulfate is the antidote for Tensilon complications.
  7. nonsurgical management for Myasthenia Gravis
    • Respiratory support
    • Promoting mobility
    • Drug therapy: Cholinesterase inhibitor drugs, Immunosuppression, Plasmapheresis
  8. Cholinesterase Inhibitor Drugs
    • Drugs include anticholinesterase and antimyasthenics.
    • Enhance neuromuscular impulse transmission by preventing decrease of ACh by the enzyme ChE.
    • Administer with food.
    • Observe drug interactions.
    • Too much=cholinergic crisis
  9. Myasthenic crisis
    • an exacerbation of the myasthenic symptoms caused by undermedication with anticholinesterases
    • Tensilon test is performed.
    • Priority for nursing management is to maintain adequate respiratory function.
    • Cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs are withheld because they increase respiratory secretions and are usually ineffective for the first few days after the crisis begins
  10. Cholinergic crisis
    • an acute exacerbation of muscle weakness caused by overmedication with cholinergic (anticholinesterase) drugs
    • Anticholinergic drugs are withheld while the patient is maintained on a ventilator.
    • Atropine may be given and repeated, if necessary.
    • Observe for thickened secretions due to the drugs.
    • Improvement is usually rapid after appropriate drugs have been given
  11. Management of MG
    • Immunosuppression
    • Plasmapheresis
    • Respiratory support
    • Promoting self-care guidelines
    • Assisting with communication
    • Nutritional support
    • Eye protection
    • Surgical management usually involving thymectomy
  12. Teachging for MG
    • Factors in exacerbation include infection, stress, surgery, hard physical exercise, sedatives, enemas, and strong cathartics.
    • Avoid overheating, crowds, overeating, erratic changes in sleeping habits, and emotional extremes.
    • Teach warning signs.
    • Teach importance of compliance
  13. Peripheral Nerve Trauma
    • Vehicular or sports injury or wounds to the peripheral nerves
    • Degeneration and retraction of the nerve distal to the injury within 24 hours
    • Perioperative and postoperative care
    • Rehabilitation through physiotherapy
  14. Restless Legs Syndrome
    Leg paresthesias associated with an irresistible urge to move; commonly associated with peripheral and central nerve damage in the legs and spinal cord
  15. Management of restless leg syndrome
    symptomatic, involving treating the underlying cause or contributing factor, if known
  16. What is Trigeminal Neuralgia?
    Affects trigeminal or fifth cranial nerve
  17. Surgical and Nonsurgical management of trigeminal neuralgia
    • Nonsurgical management of facial pain—drug therapy
    • Surgical management—microvascular decompression, radiofrequency thermal coagulation, percutaneous balloon microcompression
    • Postoperative care—monitoring for complications
  18. Facial Paralysis or Bell's Palsy
    • Acute paralysis of seventh cranial nerve
    • Medical management—prednisone, analgesics, acyclovir
    • Protection of the eye
  19. Management of Bell's Palsy
    • Nutrition
    • Massage; warm, moist heat; facial exercises
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Peripheral Nervous System
2011-12-12 04:23:55

Peripheral Nervous System
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