Med Term Ch. 15

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ae_228
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Med Term Ch. 15
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2011-12-11 23:42:40
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Special Senses
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Special Senses
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  1. accomodation
    Adjustment of the eye for various distances so that images fall on the retina of the eye
  2. acuity
    Clearness or sharpness of a sensory function
  3. adnexa
    tissues or structures in the body adjacent to or near a related structure
  4. articulating
    being loosely joined or connected together to allow motion between the parts
  5. humor
    any fluid or semifluid of the body
  6. labyrinth
    series of intricated communicating passages
  7. opaque
    substance that does not allow the passage of light; not transparent
  8. perilymph
    fluid that very closely resembles spinal fluid but found in the cochlea
  9. photopigment
    light-sensitive pigment in the retinal cones and rods that absorbs light and initiates the visual process; also called visual pigment
  10. refractive
    ability to bend light rays as they pass from one medium to another
  11. tunic
    layer or coat of tissue; also called membrane layer
  12. ambly/o
    dull, dim
  13. aque/o
    water
  14. blephar/o
    eyelid
  15. choroid/o
    choroid
  16. conjunctive/o
    conjunctiva
  17. core/o
    pupill/o
    pupil
  18. corne/o
    cornea
  19. cycl/o
    ciliary body of eye; circular; cycle
  20. dacry/o
    lacrim/o
    tear; lacrimal apparatus (duct, sac, or gland)
  21. dacryocyst/o
    lacrimal sac
  22. glauc/o
    gray
  23. goni/o
    angle
  24. irid/o
    iris
  25. kerat/o
    horny tissue; hard; cornea
  26. ocul/o
    ophthalm/o
    eye
  27. opt/o
    optic/o
    eye, vision
  28. phac/o
    lens
  29. phot/o
    light
  30. presby/o
    old age
  31. retin/o
    retina
  32. scler/o
    hardening; sclera (white of eye)
  33. scot/o
    darkness
  34. vitr/o
    vitreous body (of eye)
  35. audi/o
    hearing
  36. labyrinth/o
    labyrinth (inner ear)
  37. mastoid/o
    mastoid process
  38. ot/o
    ear
  39. salping/o
    tubes (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)
  40. staped/o
    stapes
  41. myring/o
    tympan/o
    tympanic membrane (eardrum)
  42. -acusia
    -cusis
    hearing
  43. -opia
    -opsia
    vision
  44. -tropia
    turning
  45. achromatopsia
    severe congenital deficiency in color perception; also called complete color blindness
  46. chalazion
    small, hard tumor developing on the eyelid, somewhat similar to a sebaceous cyst
  47. conjunctivitis
    inflammation of the conjuctiva with vascular congestion, producing a red or pink eye; may be secondary to viral, bacterial, or fungal infections or allergy
  48. convergence
    medial movement of the two eyeballs so that they are both directed at the object being viewed
  49. diopter
    measurement of refractive error
  50. ectropion
    eversion, or outward turning, of the edge of the lower eyelid
  51. emmetropia
    state of normal vision
  52. entropion
    inversion or inward turning of the edge of the lower eyelid
  53. epiphora
    abnormal overflow of tears
  54. exophthalmos
    protrusion of one or both eyeballs
  55. hordeolum
    localized, circumscribed, inflammatory swelling of one of the several sebaceous glands of the eyelid, generally caused by a bacterial infection; also called stye
  56. metamorphopsia
    visual distortion of objects
  57. nyctalopia
    impaired vision in dim light, also called night blindness
  58. nystagmus
    involuntary eye movements that appear jerky and may reduce vision or be associated with other, more serious conditions that limit vision
  59. papilledema
    edema and hyperemia of the optic disc usually associated with increased intracranial pressure; also called choked disc
  60. photophobia
    unusual intolerance and sensitivity to light
  61. presbyopia
    loss of accommodation of the crystalline lens associated with the aging process
  62. retinopathy
    -diabetic
    • any disorder of retinal blood vessels
    • -disorder that occurs in patients with diabetes and is manifested by small hemorrhages, edema, and formation of new vessels on the retina, leading to scarring and eventual loss of vision
  63. trachoma
    chronic, contagious form of conjunctivitis common in the southwestern U.S. that typically leads to blindness
  64. visual field
    area within which objects may be seen when the eye is in a fixed position
  65. anacusis
    complete deafness; also called anacusia
  66. conduction impairment
    blocking of sound waves as they pass through the external and middle ear (conduction pathway)
  67. labryrinthitis
    inflammation of the inner ear that usually results from acute febrile process
  68. Meniere disease
    disorder of the labyrinth that leads to progressive loss of hearing
  69. noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL)
    condition casued by the destruction of hair cells, the organs responsible for hearing, caused by sounds that are "too long, too loud, or too close"
  70. otitis externa
    infection of the external auditory canal
  71. presbyacusis
    impairment of hearing resulting from old age; also called presbyacusia
  72. pressure-equalizing (PE) tubes
    tubes that are inserted through the tympanic membrane, commonly to treat chronic otitis media; also called tympanostomy tubes or ventilation tubes
  73. tinnitus
    perception of ringing, hissing, or other sounds in the ears or head when no external sound is present
  74. vertigo
    hallucination of movement, or a feeling of spinning or dizziness
  75. audiometry
    measurement of hearing acuity at various sound wave frequencies
  76. caloric stimulation test
    test that uses different water temperatures to assess the vestibular portion of the nerve of the inner ear (acoustic nerve) to determine if nerve damage is the cause of vertigo
  77. electronystagmography (ENG)
    method of assessing and recording eye movements by measuring the electrical activity of the extraocular muscles
  78. ophthalmodynamometry
    measurment of the blood pressure of the retinal vessels
  79. tonometry
    evaluation of intraocular pressure by measuring the resistance of the eyeball to indentation by an applied force
  80. visual acuity (VA) test
    part of an eye examination that determines the smallest letters that can be read on a standardized chart at a distance of 20 feet
  81. gonioscopy
    examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye to determine ocular motility and rotation and diagnose and manage glaucoma
  82. ophthalmoscopy
    visual examination of the interior of the eye using a hand-held instrument called an ophthalmoscope, which has various adjustable lenses for magnification and a light source to illuminate the interior of the eye
  83. otoscopy
    -pneumatic
    • visual examination of the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane using an otoscope
    • -procedure that assesses the ability of the tympanic membrane to move in response to a change in air pressure
  84. retinoscopy
    evaluation of refractive errors of the eye by projecting a light into the eyes and determining the movement of reflected light rays
  85. dacrocystography
    radiographic imaging procedures of the nasolacrimal (tear) glands and ducts
  86. fluorescein angiography
    assess blood vessels and their leakage in and beneath the retina after injection of fluorescein dye. The dye circulates while photographs of the vessels within the eye are obtained.
  87. orthoptic training
    exercises intended to improve eye movements or visual tracking that use training glasses, prism glasses, or tinted or colored lenses
  88. blepharoplasty
    cosmetic surgery that removes fatty tissue above and below the eyes that commonly form as a result of the aging process or excessive exposure to the sun
  89. cochlear implant
    artificial hearing device that produces useful hearing sensations by electrically stimulating nerves inside the inner ear; also called bionic ear
  90. cyclodialysis
    formation of an opening between the anterior chamber and the suprachoroidal space for the draining of aqueous humor in glaucoma
  91. enucleation
    removal of the eyeball from the orbit
  92. evisceration
    removal of the contents of the eye while leaving the sclera and cornea intact
  93. mastoid antrotomy
    surgical opening of a cavity whithin the mastoid process
  94. otoplasty
    corrective surgery for a deformed or excessivly large or small pinna
  95. phacoemulsification
    method of treating cataracts by using ultrasonic waves to disintegrate a cloudy lens, which is then aspirated and removed
  96. radial keratotomy (RK)
    incision of the cornea for treatment of nearsightedness or astigmatism
  97. sclerostomy
    surgical formation of an opening in the sclera
  98. turning fork test
    -Rinne
    -Weber
    • method use to evaluate sound conduction using a vibrating turning fork
    • -Tuning fork test that evaluates bone condition (BC) versus air conduction (AC) of sound
    • -tuning fork test that evaluates bone conduction of sound in both ears at the same time
  99. tympanoplasty
    reconstruction of the eardrum, commonly due to perforation; also called myringoplasty
  100. eye antibiotics, ophthalmic
    inhibit growth of microorganisms that infect the eye
  101. antiglaucoma agents
    decrease aqeous humor production by constricting the pupil to open the angle between the iris and cornea
  102. mydriatics
    drugs that disrupt parasympathetic nerve supply to the eye or stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, causing the pupil to dilate
  103. ophthalmic decongestants
    constrict the small arterioles of the eye, decreasing redness and relieving conjunctival congestion
  104. ophthalmic moisturizers
    soothe dry eyes due to environmental irritants and allergens
  105. ear antiemetics
    treat and prevent nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and vertigo by reducing the sensitivity of the inner ear to motion or inhibiting stimuli from reaching the part of the brain that triggers nausea and vomiting
  106. otic analgesics
    provide temporary relief from pain and inflammation associated with otic disorders
  107. wax emulsifiers
    loosed and help remove impacted cerumen (ear wax)

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