Ch. 59 BIO Final

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Ch. 59 BIO Final
2011-12-11 23:46:48
59 BIO Final

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  1. How do energy and matter (chemicals) move in an ecosystem?
    • Energy flows through the ecosystem
    • Matter (chemicals) cycles within an ecosystem
  2. How many tropic levels are there? What are they?
    4- Primary producers, Primary consumers, Secondary consumers, Tertiary consumers
  3. (autotrophs) typically harvests light energy from the sun; located at the base of the food chain
    example of terrestrial and aquatic
    • Primary producers
    • Ex. Plant (terrestrial) and Phytoplankton (aquatic)
  4. (herbivore) an organism that obtains its food by eating primary producers
    example of terrestrial and aquatic
    • Primary consumers
    • Ex. Caterpillar (terrestrial) and zooplankton (aquatic)
  5. (carnivore) an organism that feeds on secondary consumers
    Example of terrestrial and aquatic
    • Secondary consumers
    • Ex. Lizard (terrestrial) and fish (aquatic)
  6. (secondary carnivore) an organism that feeds on secondary consumers
    Example of terrestrial and aquatic
    • Tertiary consumer
    • Ex. Snake (terrestrial) and pelican (aquatic)
  7. What is the importance of decomposition in ecosystems?
    They break down dead organisms from all tropic levels
  8. What are the first and second laws of thermodynamics?
    • First: energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or transformed
    • Second: some energy is lost as heat in any conversation process
  9. What is an organism's production efficiency? How is it calculated?
    • The percentage of energy assimilated by an organism that becomes incorporated into new biomass
    • -production efficiency = net productivity/ assimilation x 100
  10. What is an organism's tropic-level transfer efficiency and how is it calculated?
    • The amount of energy at one tropic level that is acquired by the tropic level above and incorporated into biomass
    • - tropic level transfer efficiency = production at tropic level n/ production at trophic level n-1 x 100
  11. What is the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs during a given time period?
    Primary production
  12. What is the gain in the biomass of heterotrophs and decomposers, they are much smaller than primary production and thought to be limited largely by available primary production?
    Secondary production
  13. What is equal to GPP minus the energy used by primary producers for respiration- only NPP is available to consumers
    net primary production (NPP)
  14. What is the total primary production
    Gross primary production (GPP)
  15. Nutrient cycles involve both ______ and _____ components
    Biotic and abiotic
  16. What cycle involves phosphorous, potassium, calcium, and other elements in the soil and water?
    Local cycle
  17. What cycle involves gaseous forms of carbon, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen in the atmosphere
    Global cycles
  18. What is the precipitation with a pH of less than 5.6 and results from the burning of fossil fuels?
    Acid rain
  19. What is the process by which elevated nutrient levels in a body of water lead to an overgrowth of algae or aquatic plants and a subsequent depletion of water oxygen levels when these photosynthesizers decay?
  20. What is the increase in the concentration of a higher substance in living organisms from lower to higher tropic levels in a food web?
    Biological magnification
  21. What is caused by atmospheric CO2, is necessary to keep the surface of the Earth at a habitable temperature, increased levels of CO2 are magnifying the effect, and could cause global warming?
    Greenhouse effect