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- Pablo Picasso. Les Demoiselles D’ Avigonon. 1907.
- Proto-cubism: artist in Paris, but he was born in Spain. Immediate precursor to Cubism. Now in Museum of Modern Art in New York. Very large painting. Subject of the painting is five prostitutes. Hard to tell what kind of space they exist in. In detail: figure on left looks like she’s holding back a curtain, but it’s an odd positioning, and her body has anglar geometric forms. Breats are rectangular instead of soft curved breasts. That’s characteristic of cubism. Second figure is holding a sheet. Far bottom right has her back to us. Space is compressed and it is a little hard to read what is part of each figure. Interest in composition. Fruit along the bottom of the work. Still life. Picasso is also influenced by African masks. Large exhibit in Paris at the time that was displaying things like this. Cubism is more intellectual, where Expressionism is more emotional.
- Georges Braque. Violin and Palette. 1909-1910. Analytic cubism. Braque and Picasso became good friends. Often described as mountain climbers. One would climb to knew height, and harness them, then the other would work past them to a new point. Was influenced much by Cezanne. Matisse had told Braque he didn’t like his work and said it just looks like a bunch of little cubes, hence cubism. This is the first phase of cubism- analytic cubism. When you break things down
- and analyze form, looking at their individual parts, and put them back together in a new way. If you wanted to look at something from multiple angles at one
- time and put them all together, this is a good example of analytic cubism. Overwhelming number of vertical and horizontal lines, as opposed to diagonals. Also a move
- away from color. Abstract from nature, but there are still recognizable works, so it is not entirely abstract free form. Still life broken down into the violin, sheet music, and the palette
- Pablo Picasso. Glass and Bottle of Suze. 1912. Synthetic
- cubism, building objects up, but still about analyzing objects, about form and composition, and a little bit abstract. Like analytic, it never goes completely unobjective, you can always recognize the subject. With synthetic, introduction of collage; combining bits and pieces of material, such as cloth, newspaper, etc, and gluing these images together. Assemblage is 3D objects put together in a collage. Newspaper was an everyday item, so this work began to break down barrier of fancy and elite in art, to everyday casual. Newspaper clippings were about Café. Bridges intellectual activity of the artist and the outside world.
Umberto Boccioni. Unique Forms of Continuity in Space. 1913. Characteristics of futurism: helmet or armor of some kind, it’s a figure. Showing movement/action. Smooth polish to the bronze. Open form. Uses diagonal lines to show the motion.
Kasimir Malevich. Supermatist Paintint (Eight Red Rectangles). 1913. He painted with black, white, and red. attempt to free art from the burden of the object, I took refuge in the square form and exhibited a picture which consisted of nothing more than black square on a white field." The work shown above was called Suprematism to explain "the supremacy of pure feeling in create art." In eliminating the idea of objects from art and working with only formal characteristics, Malevich sought to liberate the inherent beauty in art and allow the viewers interpretation to create its own meaning. Malevich is also known as the founder of Suprematism, an art movement based on fundatmental geometeric forms such as the square, circle, rectangle or triangle.
- Marsden Hartley. Portrait of a German Officer. 1914. Hartley was an artist who lived in New York. Traveled to Paris and saw what the cubists were doing. Also lived a lot in Germany. In Paris, Hartley was part of a small
- group of homosexual subset. Fell in love with German officer while living in Germany. In the US at this time, artistry was thought to be not as advanced as
- in the other countries of the West. Primary colors used. Horizontal and vertical lines. Identifiable forms. This echoes cubism. Karl von Fiber is who this was made for. Liked to play checkers, hence checkerboards. 4 refers to his regiment number. Died at age 24, KIA. Iron cross was awarded to him day before he died. White diamond and blue flag refers to nationality of the officer. Not
- a likeness of his face, however; just information about him, much more abstract and geometric based on signs and symbols. This painting, executed in November 1914, shows Hartley's assimilation of both Cubism (the collagelike juxtapositions of visual fragments) and German Expressionism (the coarse brushwork and dramatic use of bright colors and black)
- Marcel Duchamp. Fountain (Second Version). Dada. 1950. French, lived in Paris. Fled France for new York in 1915 at the outbreak of WWI. Very instrumental in bringing Dada ideas to America. Emphasizes an intellectual approach to art. First instances of conceptual art, where idea behind the object is almost more
- important than the thing itself. Calls the kinds of objects he makes “ready made” because it is an ordinary everyday object that becomes a work of art
- because the artist selects it and says it is art. Emphasis on the authority of the artist. Shift In context from everyday to an art gallery manipulates it into art. This is a urinal which he rotated 90 degrees, puts it on a pedestal,
- and calls it the Fountain. R MUTT is his Sudanic signature as a purposeful signature for the fountain. Clever reference to J L MOTT Iron works, a company that mass produced fixtures for bathrooms and kitchens. Submitted it to be displayed in exhibition of the American Society of Independent Artists. Decide to have non juried show, no panel of judges determining who will be
- exhibited and who will be rejected. Meant to be democratic; anyone who paid the entrance fee should have been allowed to display their art EXCEPT Duchamp’s piece is rejected! He’s challenging what art is, what it can be, what it can say, and even who an artist should be. Celebration of American culture at the
- time, celebrates the kind of industry and growth in America that gave rise to the need for mass production of bathrooms and kitchens.
- Piet Mondrian. Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow. 1930. Almost all of his paintings have grid structure with rectangles. Use of three primary colors. His
- compositions look much like this one, and are highly repetitive. But nonetheless you do still get a sense of the hand of the artist at work, as there are slight variations in the color if you look carefully at the surface. His choice of primary colors and his use of grid format is purposeful, to have kind of balanced, but not symmetrical composition. In combination of the three primary colors, it makes up all the other colors. Repetition of Horizontals and verticals. No resting place for eye, still sense of movement. Mondrian thought that his use of primary colors and balance of lines evoked the idea of
- universal beauty, sense of eternal and unchanging. Balance of binaries was important, too. Evokes a number of other binaries in society; men vs women; order vs chaos, material world vs spiritual world. Wanted to open up the possibility of a number of different associations. Completely abstract work, completely nonrepresentational. Different from cubism because Mondrian isn’t breaking down figures and putting them back together in geometric shapes. He is simply laying geometric shapes out on a canvas
- Walter Gropius. Bauhaus Building. Dessau, Germany 1925-26. Gropius and other members of this school wanted to embrace machine age of 20th century. He
- admired the spirit of collaboration and artistic ferment that was part of medieval and renaissance skills. He wants to revive this spirit but he wants to reassert it in the modern age. Refined by mechanized serial production. Using modern materials, glass iron, metals, concrete. Not trying to hide his use of these materials. Wanted to make very carefully crafted and carefully designed objects that could then be made in serial production and be made affordable to a lot of people. Many of their art works are sort of prototypes that are then made in factories. This is the school where artists trained. Design of the building itself holds many of their ideas and principles. Emphasis on balance but not symmetry. Rejection of extraneous decoration. Emphasis on volume over mass. Essentially a building wrapped in glass and steel that isn’t attempting to
- encapsulate a large enclosed space, a space lit by light from the walls of windows. Simplification of the script as well. No single point of entrance, no single point of view when looking at the building. Even though we have the
- emphasis on geometry, you can see that there are points where glass and concrete intersect and sort of flow into each other, especially in corners.
- Salvadore Dali. The Persistence of Memory. 1931. Made his paintings rather small, intentionally, to be a size that could fit into your head. Hand painted dream photographs is what he called his works. Dali talked a bit about his working method and the ideas behind his paintings; he called his method paranoic critical, which he
- defines as spontaneous method of irrational knowledge based on the systematic objectification of delirious something. Hyper realistic style. Oil on canvas. Rendering shapes and objects in form in a precise and exact way, which makes you think that they could actually exist in reality, but they don’t. Things that are vaguely recognizable that are abstracted to an unrecognizable degree=biomorphic abstraction. Organic figures that have been distorted so that they start to be unrecognizable. Free association on the part of the artist. Story goes that he was making grilled cheese one day, and noted the way cheese oozes and melts inspired the melting clocks. Can identify them as clocks, but their form inhibits their functionality as clocks. Bugs on one of the clocks= bugs drawn to rotting fruit, rotting body, etc, so tied to death and decay. He is trying to call into question the
- importance of reality. Trying to draw attention to the fact that everyone has irrational thoughts and strange ideas that derive in unconscious
- Dorthea Lange. Migrant Mother. Nipomo, CA. 1936. Hired by government institution called Farm Security Administration to document the hardship of farmers and migrant workers. Does it in order to raise public funds
- for them. Focuses on their plight. Dorthea and FSA dedicated to building labor camps to help with their plight. Florence Thompson and her children pictured
- here. This photo was published in newspaper and was effective in garnering public support and funds for the farmers and migrant workers. When you look at
- this, appeals to viewers by emotion. She looks aged so hardship of her life is evident in her wrinkled face, clothes are tattered, hair disheveled. This really communicates a sense of worry, a worry for her children more than
- Jacob Lawrence. During the War there was a Great Migration North by Southern Negros. Lawrence was an African American artist, first to be collected by Modern Museum of Art in NY. The great migration occurred in
- 19-teens. Many black families living the in south moved north to NY, Washington DC, St, Louis, Chicago. One of the reasons why is for better working opportunities, better education, better housing. Brings awareness to civil rights. Lawrence was part of group of artist grouped under term HARLEM RENAISSANCE. Harlem was area of NYC where a number of artists lived and worked, subculture of black artist seeking to find new
- contemporary identity for themselves that fused their African roots and American heritage. Really meant to effect social change, but more so a celebration of black artists and black culture. Emphasis on optimism,
- self-awareness, self-respect, based on advantages of education, work, and better housing conditions. Observation of human condition, namely blacks, that is bleak in south and increasingly positive in the north. Creates a visual narrative that relies on minimal amount
- of text. Relies on repetition of color, dynamic line and form. The series begins and ends with scene at a railway station. This is the first of the series. None of these figures are individualized. Generalized hope of a better
- idea for self.
- Jackson Pollock. Autumn Rhythm. Nov 30 1950. Action painting in that he is active painting, painting on a large scale. Uses splattering. Carl Jung. Abstract Expressionism. A lot of people sort of think this is so
- easy a five year old could do it, but that isn’t necessarily true. He went to art school, and thus was aware of the elements of art. Color palette purposefully trying to evoke that sense of fall. Often his method of painting
- is compared to Jazz, which as a genre of music is very spontaneous and often improvised. But that spontaneity is based on the steady skill of the artist
- Mark Rothko. Brown, Blue, Brown on Blue. 1953. Color Field painting. Abstract Expressionism. Lets the colors bleed through the unprimed canvas. Produces
- paintings that can stand alone, but also ones that go together in one room to create an environment. The idea that color can illicit emotion is one that Rothko is very purposefully trying to tap into; people have been known to cry in front of his paintings. Nothings representational about his work
Helen Frankenthaler. Mountains and Sea. 1952. Color Field combined with action. Abstract Expressionism. The way she is dripping and pouring and moving paint across the surface makes it an action painting. Using unusual tools: house paints, brushes, brooms, sticks. This makes it avant garde.
- Robert Rauschenberg. Canyon. 1959. Abstraction Expressionism starts to become taught in schools. Thought of as the triumph of American painting. You have two choices: continue to work in abstract expressionism style that is becoming popular, or rebel against it. This is where Rauschenberg comes in. They want to react against emphasis of the personality of the artist. More interested in questioning what art is. Rauschenberg is interested in opening up the possibilities of what art can be, and what art can be made of.
- Combines materials, paintings, photographs, newspapers, found objects, so he called his work “Combines”. A picture is more like the real world when it is
- made out of the real world. He wants the viewer to explore potential interpretations among themselves.
- Jasper Johns. Target with Four Faces. 1955. Also takes found objects and appropriates images recognizable from our daily life that already have some sort of significance in them because of their ubiquity in the common
- world. Assemblage. Combines painting and sculpture. They’re anonymous faces because there are no eyes. Repetition of this face over and over again.
- Attempting to connect these faces with this target; who is the target? What is the target? Gay artist living during
- McCarthyism. Could be calling attention to arbitrary dispermenation against various groups in society. Johns was also a print maker! We have one of his optometry
- Roy Lichtenstein. Oh, Jeff...I Love You, Too…But… 1964. Ben day dots is the technique of which color is applied; black outlines with little round dots used to color. Same technique that newspapers used to suggest shades of tone. He hand paints every one of those little dots. Promotes the impersonal as a style; his application of the paint gives no inclination toward him and
- his emotions as the artist, except it ironically becomes typical of him, so it is recognizable as him. Condensed a whole story into one pregnant moment. Hard
- to decide if his works are a celebration or critique of social life; the artist didn’t know or recognize one either.
- Andy Warhol. Marilyn Diptych. Silk Screen- type of print making. A photo is burned onto a mesh screen to make a stencil, then take a tool to push paint through the mesh screen. Warhol is probably the most well
- known Pop artist. Began his career as an artist in illustrating. So he is trained in the rederick of advertising of repetition and redundancy. Was made just months after her suicide. Taunting parallel between life and death in the colored and black and white copy of the work. Title is evocative because it suggests religious icons.