Ch. 58 BIO Final

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  1. What is the total number of different species in the community?
    Species richness
  2. What is the proportion each species represents of all individuals in the community?
    Relative abundance
  3. What is the temperate regions have less species rich communities because they are younger, resident species of temperate zones have not yet evolved new forms to exploit vacant niches, and has limited applicability to marine organisms?
    Time hypothesis
  4. What is the larger area that contains more species because they can support larger populations and a greater range of habitats, and does not explain lack of species richness in large biomes such as the open ocean or tundra
    Area hypothesis
  5. What is the greater production by plants results in greater overall species richness, increased plant biomass leads to more herbivores which leads to more predators
    Productivity hypothesis
  6. What is the highest numbers of species are maintained, high levels of disturbance favor r-selected species, while low levels of disturbance favor K-selected species
    Intermediate-disturbance hypothesis
  7. What is a disturbance?
    • An event that changes in a community and removes organisms from a community and alters resources available
    • Ex. drought, fires, floods, hurricanes
  8. What is succession? What are the two types?
    • The gradual and continuous change in species composition and community structure over time
    • Primary and secondary
  9. What occurs where no soil exists when succession begins?
    Primary succession
  10. What begins in an area where soil remains after a disturbance?
    Secondary succession
  11. Each colonizing species makes the environments a little different so that it becomes more suitable to other species- continues until the most competitively dominant species have colonized- determined by climate and soil conditions
  12. What are the 3 mechanisms of succession?
    Facilitation, Inhibition, and Tolerance
  13. Early colonizing species prevents colonization by other species- the primary method of succession in the marine intertidal zone, where space is limited
  14. Any species can start the succession- species that establish and remain do not change the environment in ways that either facilitate or inhibit subsequent species- species have differing tolerances to the intensity of competition
  15. What are the two factors that determine the number of species on an "island" are the rate at which new species immigrate to the island and the rate at which species become extinct on the island- the physical features of the island that affect immigration and extinction are its size and its distance from the "mainland"
    Equilibrium of island biogeography
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Ch. 58 BIO Final
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