Bio Final 2

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Bio Final 2
2011-12-12 01:26:03
tubberly bfinal

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  1. Active Doubt
    test claims by gathering new data to correct/advance theory
  2. Adjacent Segregation
    • normal and translocated chromosomes migrate same direction
    • Adj I: homologous centromeres migrate in opposite directions
    • Adj II: homologous centromeres migrate in same direction (less likely)
  3. Alignment
    aligning of homologous sequences to get homologs
  4. Allopatric Speciation
    geographic isolation of population precedes evolution of species level differences
  5. Allopoliploid
    multiple haploid sets from same species
  6. Allotetraploid
    haploid sets from different species eg: Raphnobrassica
  7. Alternate Segregation
    • normal and translocated chromosomes migrate in different directions
    • homologous chromosomes always migrate in different directions
  8. Ambigous
    no shared states between ingroup and outgroup
  9. Anaphase Bridge
    created in anaphase 1, bridged by dicentric chromosome while acentric chromosome cannot attach to spindle fibers
  10. Ancestral state
    state present in ingroup and outgroup
  11. Aneuploid
    chromosome number is not integral multiple of haploid set
  12. Anticipation
    increase in degree of disease through generations
  13. Barrbody
    x chromosome mostly in heterochromatin and mostly inactive
  14. Biological Species Concept
    Mayr-a reproductive community of populations (reproductively isolated from others) that occupies a specific niche in nature
  15. Bootstrapping
    sample sites with replacement to produce new data set and construct phylogenetic tree from such data…repeat!!
  16. Branch Migration
    point of nucleotide exchange can move back and forth
  17. Caenogenesis
    evolution of new characteristics restricted to preadult stages
  18. Chromosomal Rearrangements
    deficiency, duplication, inversion, translocation
  19. Clade
    • monophyletic group-a group of two or more species/lineages that includes the mRCA of all members of the group and all of its descendents
    • diagnosed by the sharing of homologies i.e. synapamorphy
  20. Cladogram
    branches denote the nested hierarchy of clades as diagnosed by synapamorphies
  21. Colchicine
    • prevents spindle fibers by binding to tubulin
    • important because can be used to make tetraploid from diploid
  22. Common Descent
    all plants and animals have descended from some one form into which life was first breathed
  23. Complementary Principle
    subjective (volition): questions asked, concepts and measurements chosen, along with objective (cognition) measurements
  24. Complementation
    production of a normal phenotype when two mutations are combined in trans in a diploid and helps determine exact location of locus.
  25. Condensation
    older features are displaced to earlier and shorter developmental occurrences
  26. Constituitive
    always condensed
  27. Convergence
    origin of similar features by dissimilar evolutionary processes
  28. Darwin’s 3rd Theory
    multiplication of species
  29. Deficiency
    • loop observed in pachytene
    • heterozygous: usually deleterious in humans
    • homozygous: usually lethal in humans
  30. Derived State
    ingroup state other than ancestral one
  31. Distance Based Methods
    more advanced parsimony criterion that uses matrices and distances between all pairwise components
  32. Divergence of Character
    separate lineages accumulate differences from each other and from their common ancestor
  33. Domain of Darwinism
    diversity of plant and animal life, not origin of life
  34. Dosage Compensation
    mechanism that ensure same effect dosage of the x chromosome
  35. Duplication
    • often “tandem”, eg Bar eye
    • heterozygous: usually deleterious or lethal for a large duplication
    • important in evolution
  36. Endosymbiotic Theory
    Lynn Margulis-organelles descend from prokaryotic organisms taken inside an ancestral host cell
  37. Ernst Haeckel
    • “Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny”organismal development repeats adult stages of ancestral forms and assumes terminal addition and condensation
    • exceptions are caenogenesis, heterochrony, heterotopy, modularity, and reality
  38. Euploid
    integral number of whole haploid set
  39. Evolution as Such
    the biological world is neither constant nor perpetually cycling but steadily and perhaps directionally changing with continuity from past to present life
  40. Evolutionary Theory
    a scientific explanation for the natural history of life
  41. Facultative
    condensed in some cells but not others
  42. Fit of Enthusiasm
    expands explanation scheme of evolution to account for human culture and ideas
  43. Fit of Hostility
  44. Giemsa
    stains for AT. Used to create G bands.
  45. Gradualism
    geological changes occur in small increments which accumulate over time to produce large changes
  46. Heterochrony
    evolutionary change in developmental rates and timing
  47. Heterotopy
    evolutionary change in the physical location of a developmental process
  48. Historical Structure of Homology
    sharing of homologies among species forms a nested hierarchy of groups within groups
  49. Holiday Structure
    explains gene conversion, association of conversion with crossingover, precision of crossing over. Each line is single strand, shows 2 chromatids, crossover intermediate, 3-4000bp
  50. Homology
    forms derived from an equivalent characteristic of a common ancestor
  51. Homoplasy
    • character similarity that does not represent common ancestry (number of evolutionary changes exceeds number of derived states)
    • parallelism, reversal, or convergence
  52. Huntington’s Disease
    autosomal dominant, 100% penatrace. Age 40-irradic movements, personality change, mental deterioration. Cause: run of ≥42 glutamines coded by CAG. Normal:10-35 glu.
  53. Hypothetico-deductivism
    potentially falsifiable, parsimony, no positive proof, empirical verification and power, no magic/supernatural/inherently unknowable factors
  54. Inversion
    • causes inversion loop in pachytene
    • paracentric: break points on same side of centromere and appear to suppress crossover because recombinants go to dicentric or acentric chromosomes
    • pericentric: break points on different sides of centromere and appear to suppress crossover because it causes death usually
    • causes inversion loop when heterozygous
  55. Lamarckism
    animals acquire characteristics during their lifetime
  56. Lineages
    ancestor-descendant populations through time, which either persist without change, persist with change, bifurcate, or go extinct
  57. Maximum Likelihood and Baysian Approaches
    complex models of base substitution to determine phylogenetic tree
  58. Modularity
    character, semiautonomous, patterns of gene expression and cellular proliferation and differentiation
  59. Multigene Family
    group of genes that encodes related proteins, which presumably arose by gene duplication followed by divergence
  60. Neo-darwinism
    Darwinism and chromosomal theory of inheritance
  61. Niche
    set of resources actually or potentially used by population
  62. Nondirectionalism
    dynamic steady state
  63. Parallelism
    lineages derive from their common ancestor, but not from each other
  64. Parsimony Criterion
    find the tree topology that requires the smallest number of evolutionary changes
  65. Parsimony Informative Characters
    shared derived characters
  66. Phylogenetic Tree
    branches denote historical evolutionary lineages
  67. Phylogeny
    the structure of evolutionary history is a branching tree of lineages
  68. Polymorphism
    presence of more than one common form in a population
  69. Polyploid
    more than 2 whole haploid sets
  70. Polytene Chromasome
    in salivary glands of drosophila larvae. DNA replicates without cell division causing approximately 102 chromatids per chromosome
  71. Population
    smallest unit of biological complexity that evolve (a rejection of Lamarckism)
  72. Post Meiotic Segregation
    unpaired ascospores through gene conversion or mitosis recombination
  73. Pseudolinkage
    because normal chromosomes are always inherited together in a translocation
  74. Quinacrine
    fluorescent dye used to create Q bands, fluorescing regions of AT
  75. R Bands
    reverse G bandings. GC regions are dark. Heat treat then stain with giemsa
  76. Restriction Enzymes
    cut DNA at a specific sequence
  77. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)
    mutation causes restriction enzyme to cut differently, resulting in a unique electrophoresis and therefore Southern blot as well
  78. Reversal
    evolutionary return to an ancestral character formerly lost or changed
  79. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
    one base pair in a genome commonly varies within a species
  80. Southern Blotting
    digest, electrophoresis, denature, blot, block, radioactive hybridization
  81. Synapamorphy
    a shared derived character or homology between members of a clade that is also shared by the mRCA
  82. Terminal Addition
    new features are added to the end of ontogeny
  83. Thomas Huxley
    Darwin’s bulldog and “active doubter” ;)
  84. Translocation
    produces translocation cross in pachytene; ring of four in diplotene
  85. Trivalent
    3 chromosomes associated in zygotene
  86. Trypsin
    used before staining to remove proteins
  87. Unequal Crossingover
    crossingover between 2 improperly aligned homologs can cause duplications
  88. Uniformity of Process
    use familiar geological processes to explain past events
  89. Univalent
    unpaired chromosome in zygotene
  90. Walter Alvarez
    theory of impact crisis-studied clay layer at CT boundary and discovered high level of iridium