Anth-102 Final

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Anth-102 Final
2011-12-12 18:48:21
study guide

physical anthropology/ mesa college
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  1. Centrally located foramen magnum
    S-curve in spine
    Bowl Shaped Pelvis
    Central angled femur
    Robust Heel
  2. Preserving an organism so it becomes a fossil
  3. Fossilzation
    2 types of fossils: Body and Trace
    Hard tissue never soft tissue
    Rock, Tar, Ice, Amber
    Rapid burial crucial, minerals and pressure
  4. First Hominids
    Found in Sahel, Chad
    Dates 7-6 mya
    *Small teeth w/ thick enamel
    *short face, little prognathism
    *strong brow ridges
    * Combination not seen in fossil apes or later hominines
    Sahelanthropus tchadensis
  5. 6-5.8 mya
    Northern Kenya Tugen Hills
    First post cranial remains
    Pointy ape-like remains
    Fossil suggests bipedalism & arborealism
    Orrorin Tugenensis
  6. 8-4 mya
    Aramis Ethiopia
    Ancestral (ape-like) Traits
    *ape size brain case
    Derived Traits
    *Reduced canines
    *Foramen magnum
    centrally located
    Tim White
    • Ardipithecus ramidus
    • Ardipithicus kadabba
  7. 4.2-1.4 mya
    South & East Africa
    Bipedal locomotion
    Small brain case
    Large face
    Large teeth
    Genus Austrapithecus
  8. Discovered by Meave Leakey, 1994
    4.2 -3.9 mya
    Both ancestral and derived traits
    canines with long robust roots
    enamel thickness and molar width intermediate between Ar. ramidus and afarensis
    A. anamensis
  9. 3.7-3.0 mya
    East Africa
    Ape-Like Features
    *Small Brain
    *Knee joint
    *Fossil footprint
    A. Afarensis
  10. 3.3 2.5 mya
    Less prognathism
    More Gracile
    Smaller Teeth
    Bipedal-no striding gait
    Human-like pelvis
    Spinal curve more human like
    Taung Child discovered by Raymond Dart
    A. Africanus
  11. 2.5 mya
    Small Brain
    More Gracile
    Large teeth but not specialized
    Possible toolmaker
    Found by Tim White & Berhane Asfaw
    A. Garhi
  12. 1.95-1.78 mya
    Discovered March 2009, Anounced April 2010
    2 individuals: Juvenile Male, Adult Female
    Missing Link?
    A. Sediba
  13. Very Robust
    Very prognathic
    Large Cheek Teeth
    *4x the size of modern humans
    Small front teeth
    Sagittal crest ( a ridge of bone running lengthwise along the midline of the top of the skull)
    All indicate heavy Chewing
    Genus Paranthropus
  14. 2.5 mya
    The Black Skull
    Both Primitive and derived Traits
    P. Aethiopicus
  15. 2-1.4 mya
    South Africa
    Slight Sagittal crest
    P. Robustus
  16. 2.4-1.4mya
    East Africa
    Most Robust Form
    Found by Mary & Louis Leakey
    P. Boisei
  17. Kenya
    3.5-3.2 mya
    Tooth and skull fragments Resembles Homo Rudolfensis
    Ancestral features
    *Small Brain
    Derived Features
    *Small Molars
    *Tall Cheek Region
    Uncertain Ancestry
    Kenyanthropus Platyops
  18. 2.4-1.8 mya
    Stone tools
    Larger Brain
    Smaller teeth
    Bipedal, able to climb
    Small, 4ft Tall
    Possible speech capability
    Found by Mary & Louis Leakey
    Homo Habilus
  19. 1.9-1.4 mya
    Modern Body Build
    Large Brain
    Smaller teeth & jaw
    Posture & locomotion like later Homo
    Best Candidate for Human Ancestor
    Distinct from H. Erectus
    H. Ergaster
  20. Which Find?
    Nariokotome Boy
    Lake Turakana, Kenya
    13 year old boy
    Nearly Complete Skeleton
    Found by Richard Leakey
    Turkana Boy
  21. 1.8 mya-100kya
    5ft 5 in average
    Less Prognathims (flatter face)
    Reduced jaw & tooth size
    Sagittal Keel
    *Brain size increases from 900-1100cc
    H. Erectus
  22. H. Erectus Fossils?
    *One of the 1st
    *Island of Java
    *Large Brain Size
    *Country of Georgia
    *Oldest Hominid outside of Africa
    • 1. Java Man
    • 2.Peking Man
    • 3.Dmanisi (D-man-isi)
  23. Tools of H. Erectus
    Soft Hammer technique
    Use of Fire
    Primary tool for Scavenger
    Oppurtunistic Hunter?
    Distinctive beacuse they are bifacial and symmetrical
    Acheulian Tools
  24. Warmth
    Safety at Night
    Dry Hides & Meat
    Soften food remove toxins
  25. 850,000-200,000 years ago
    Africa, Europe possibly Asia
    Increased Brain Size
    Rounded Brain Case
    More Vertical Nose
    Deliberate bone processing of hominids by hominids
    H. Heidelbergensis (Hei-del-ber-gen-sis)
  26. Heidelbergensis culture?
    • Developed Levallois Technique
    • Multiple Tools from one core
    • Evidence of hunting; wooden spears
    • Possible use of language
  27. 130-28 kya
    Europe and Middle East
    Generalized diet, Heavy Reliance on Meat
    Regional variation
    Found by La Chapelle-aux-Saints
    • H. neanderthalensis
    • (neanderthal-ensis)
  28. How was Neanderthal different than humans?
    • Larger Brain
    • Cold adaptations
    • *Larger Nose
    • *Larger Sinuses
    • More Robust
    • *Short & Stocky
    • 5-6in Smaller than H. Sapiens
  29. Neanderthal Culture?
    • Levallois Technique
    • *Mousterian tools
    • **Points, scrapers, hand axes
    • **Dressing hides, shaping wood tools, hunting large game
    • Care of elders & sick
    • *Sharing Resources
    • *Burial Practices
  30. "The Hobbit"
    94-12 kya
    *Only other Homo after 20kya
    Island of Flores, Indonesia
    3.5 ft Tall
    Island Dwarfism vs. microcephalic sapiens?
    Homo Floresiensis (Homo Flore-sien-sis)
  31. 200 kya-present day
    Oldest fossils in Ethiophia
    Presence of a chin (1st time)
    Capable of Speech
    Minimal post-orbital constriction
    High, wide parietals
    Cro-magnon man
    Homo Sapiens
  32. H. Sapiens Culture?
    • Magdalenien Tools
    • *Blade Technology
    • *Atlatl
    • Manufactured Shelters; huts of wood, bone and hide
    • Cave Art Depicted hunting
    • Sculptures
    • Engravings
  33. 3 Theories of Modern Humans
    • African Replacement Model
    • Assimilation Model
    • Multiregional Evolutionary Model
  34. African Replacement Model
    • Modern humans emerged as a new species
    • Spread Throughout Old World
    • Replace pre-existing Homo populations outside africa
    • Any other Homo species become extinct and are not part of ancestry in living humans
  35. Assimilation Model
    • Modern human anatomy arose first in Africa
    • Originally a change in Species
    • Spread Through gene flow to populations outside Africa
    • Gene pool of non-African populations assimilated into expanding populations of modern humans out of Africa
  36. Multiregional Model
    • Modern Human anatomy appeared in multiple locations
    • Piecemeal across the Old World, different places and different times
    • Modern humans arise through gene flow
    • Interbreeding possible between two populations
  37. Earliest Agricultural Site?
    Fertile Crescent
  38. What is the importance of bipedalism evolving first?
    • Free use of hands
    • More endurance for long distance
    • Sight over Savannah Habitat
  39. 2 Factors Causing Agricultural Revolution?
    • Change in Enviornment
    • Increase in Population Size
  40. Changes in humans from Agricultural Revolution?
    • Dietary Changes
    • *Not only food but drink
    • *Superfoods
    • Biological Adaptations
    • *Changing Human Face
    • *Smaller less robust bones
    • Health Changes
    • *Higher Infections & parasites
    • *Reduced child Growth & Development
    • *Higher Enamel Defects
    • *Higher Iron Deficiency
    • *Reduced Adult Height
  41. Examples of Agricultural Changes?
    • Corn
    • *Lacks Nutrients
    • *Needs to be supplemented
    • Milk
    • *Milk Sugars
    • *Dairy Farming and natural selection
  42. The Good about Agriculture?
    • Larger Number of People
    • Surplus of Food
    • Storage of Food
    • Physical Changes
    • *Skull size decreases
    • *Tooth size decreases
    • *Smaller bones
  43. The Bad about Agriculture?
    • Land Degradation
    • Pollution
    • Overhunting
    • Human/human, human/animal conflict
    • Health Costs
    • *Higher Infection
    • *Poor Diet/Nutrition
  44. Bone Biology?
    • Bone is a living tissue
    • -Remodels itself when it can
    • Changes with age
    • -Natural degeneration
    • *Arthritus
    • Changes based on external influences
    • -Occupatonal stress
    • -Traumatic event
  45. Saggital Plane?
    Left to Right
  46. Coronal Plane?
    Front to Back
  47. Tranverse Plane?
    Top to Bottom
  48. Anterior? (front and back of body)
    Front of the Body
  49. Posterior? (front and back of body)
    Back of the Body
  50. Medial? (Vertical midline of body)
    Toward the midline
  51. Lateral? (Vertical midline of body)
    Away from the midline
  52. Proximal? (Relationship along limbs)
    Toward the trunk
  53. Distal? (Relationship along the limbs)
    Away from trunk
  54. Paired Cranial Bones?
    • Parietal
    • Temporal
    • Zygomatic
    • Nasal
    • Maxilla
  55. Single Cranial Bones?
    • Frontal
    • Occipital
    • Spheniod
    • Mandible
  56. Post Cranial Bones? (Below Skull)
    • Trunk
    • Shoulder bones
    • Arm Bones
    • Hip Bones
    • Leg Bones
  57. Trunk Bones?
    • -Vertebrae
    • *Cervicle (7)
    • *Thoracic(12)
    • *Lumbar(5)
    • -Sacrum
    • -24 Ribs
    • *12 each side
    • -Sternum
  58. Shoulder Bones?
    • -Scapula
    • -Clavicle
  59. Arm Bones?
    • -Humerus
    • -Radius
    • -Ulna
  60. Hip/Pelvic Bones?
    • -Comprised of 3 bones
    • *Ilium
    • *Ischium
    • *Pubis
  61. Leg Bones?
    • -Femur
    • -Patella
    • -Tibia
    • -Fibula
  62. Human vs Ape
    • -Skull Shape
    • -Arm Length
    • -Thorax Shape
    • -Pelvis Shape
    • -Leg Angle
  63. Goal of Forensics?
    • Provide a positive identification
    • Determine cause of death
    • Provide accurate physical evidence to be used by legal authorities
    • Reliable witness
  64. What can be determined by Skeletal Analysis?
    • Sex
    • age
    • Ancestry
    • Stature
    • Pathology
    • Trauma
    • Modification
  65. Antimortem?
    Before Death
  66. Perimortem?
    Cause of Death
  67. Postmortem?
    After Death
  68. Cultural Anthropology?
    • Burial practices
    • Material Remains
    • Soil types
    • Cultural modification to bone
  69. Standard Anatomical Postion?
    Body Faced up/ Palms up