Final Exam Study Guide part 2.txt

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Final Exam Study Guide part 2.txt
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2011-12-12 02:21:28
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    • author "John Capiral"
    • tags "Capiral"
    • description "Neil george blah blah"
    • fileName "Final Exam Study Guide part 2"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • What does filtration eliminate?
    • A. The weak crappy beams
    • B. Scatter
    • C. Off-focus radiation
    • D. None of the above
    • A. The weak crappy beams
  1. What is the primary purpose of filtration?
    A. To increase the avearage percent of useful x-rays
    B. Meow
    C. To filter out the crappy beams.
    D. None of the above
    A. To increaase the average percent of useful x-rays
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. What is inherent filtration? What is it's Al eq?
    A. Filtration built within the tube. 0.5 - 1.0 al/eq
    B. The walls and floor 1/16th thick perpendicular
    C. Lead aprons. .50 al/eq
    D. None of the above
    A. Filtration built within the collimator box. 0.5- 1.0 al/eq
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. What is the standard filtering material?
    A. Lead
    B. Sodium
    C. Aluminum
    D. Tungsten
    C. Aluminum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. What is added filtration? What is it's al eq?
    A. Located outside the tube. 1/16th mm
    B. Located witi the tube. .5 - 1.0 mm
    C. Located outside the tube. Average 1.0 mm
    D. None of the above.
    C. Located outside the tube. Average 1.0 mm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. What is a compound filter ( k-edge fitler)?
    A. 2+ materials that complement in absorbing abilitiies
    B. Material that deflects weak x-ray photons away.
    C. Filters out off focus
    D. None of the above.
    A. 2+ materials that complement in absorbing abilities
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. What does a compensating filter do?
    A. Evens out unequal density like the wedge and the boomerang.
    B. Added filter incase some weaker photons are able to penetrate
    C. 2+ materials that complment in absorbing abilities.
    A. Evens out unequal density like the wedge and the boomerang.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. What is total filtration?
    A. Equal to the sum of inherent and added filtration.
    B. Equals to the sum of compensating and compound filter.
    C. Equals to the HVL.
    D. None of the above
    A. Equal to the sum of inherent and added filtration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. When filtration is increased, what must be done to technical fascgors to maintain the same density?
    A. Decrease technical factors to keep the same density.
    B. Increase protection such as lead aprons and gloves.
    C. Increase technical factors to keep the same density
    D. None of the above.
    C. Increase technical factors to keep the same density.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. What is the recommended filtration levels for eqiopment operating below 50 kVp?
    A. 2.5 mm
    B. 3.0 mm
    C. 1.5 mm
    D. .5 mm
    D. .5 mm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. What is the recommended filtration levls for equipment operating between 50-70 kvp?
    A. 1.5 mm
    B. .5 mm
    C. 2.5 mm
    D. 3.0 mm
    A. 1.5 mm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. What is recommended filtration levels for equipment operating above 70 kvp?
    A. 2.5 mm
    B. 1.5 mm
    C. 3.0 mm
    D. .5 mm
    A. 2.5 mm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. What is x-ray quantity?
    A. How good the radiograph is
    B. Measurement of the #of x-ray photons in the useful beam
    C. How many x-ray photons amount in a good radiograph
    D. None of the above
    B. Measurement of the #of x-ray photons in the useful beam
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. What is x-ray quality?
    A. Measurement of the penetrating ability of the x-ray beam as well as the distance an x-ray photon travels in matter.
    B. How good the x-ray beam are
    C. How much attenuation radiation something gets.
    D. None of the above
    A. Measurement of the penetratng ability of the x-ray beam as well as the distasnce between an x-ray photon travels in matter.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. What is mAs? What does it control?
    A. # of x-ray photons crossing the tube per second that controls density.
    B. # of electrons crossing the tube per second. Controls contrast
    C. # of electrons is crossing the tube per second. Controls density.
    D. Noen of the above
    C. #of electrons crossing the tube per second. Controls density.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. How do changes in mAs affect density?
    A. Affects contrast.
    B. Gets lighter
    C. Gets darker making it more dense
    D. None of the above
    C. Gets darker making it more dense
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. What is the law of reciprocity?
    A. States that the density on x-ray film is proprtional to intensity and duration due to x-ray exposure
    B. No matter which technique is changed (Ma or Time) long as the mAs is constant it will create the same density
    C. None of the above
    D. Two answers: density is proportional to intensity and duration as well as the density being the same long as the mAs is constant
    D.Two answers: density is proportional to intensity and duration as well as the density being the same long as mAs is constant
  17. What is kvp? What does it control?
    A. Controls mainly the density of the x-ray.
    B. Controls the quality of the beam and its the amount of electrons coming across the tube
    C. KvP is the speed and energy of electrons going across the tube. It controls quantity and quality of x-ray beam.
    D. None of the above
    C. Kvp is the speed and energy of electrons going across the tube. It controls quantity and quality of x-ray beam.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. How do changes in kvp affect density?
    A. A visible change can be detected wit ha 4-5 perecent change in lower ranges, 8-9 percent in mid range, and 10-12 percent in higher ranges.
    B. Visible change can be seen at 30%
    C. Visible change can be seen a 15%
    D. None of the above
    A. A visible change can be detected with a 4-5 percent change in lower rnages, 8-9 percent in mid range, 10-12 percent in higher ranges.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. What is the inverse square law (x-ray intensity and distance)?
    A. I2/I1 x (D2)^2/(D1)^2
    B. (D1)^/(D2)^2 x I1/I
    C. I1/I2 x (D2)^2/(D1)^2
    D. I2/i1 x (D1)^2/(D1)^2
    C. I1/I2 x (D2)^2/(D1)^2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. What is the density maintenance formula?
    A.
  21. What type of contrast does kvp provide?
    A. It doenst affect it much.
    B. Higher kvp, high contrast. Low kvp, low contrast
    C. Higher kvp, low contrast. Low kvp, high contrast
    C. Higher kvp, low contrast. Low kvp, high contrast.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. What is another name for high contrast?
    A. Long scale
    B. Short scale
    C. None of the above
  23. Define attentuation:
    A. Amount of the beam is absorbed as it goes through matter
    B. Amount of beam the beam that reaches the image receptor
    C. None of the above
    D. Amount of the beam that is consider a good x-ray photon.
    A. Amount of the beam is absorbed as it goes through matter.
  24. Explaain the photoelectric interaction between x-ray and matter
    A. Results when an x-ray photon interacts with an inner shell electron.
    B. None of the anove
    C. Results when an x-ray photon interacts with the nucleus
    D. Results when an x-ray photon intearcts with outershell electron
    A. Results when an x-ray photon interacts with inner shell electron
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. What are the by products of a PE interaction?
    A. Phinidone and hydroquinone
    B. Ionized atom because ( resulting from missing inner shell electron ) and an ejected electron which aka photoelectron
    C. Sodium and Potassium
    D. Strong penetrating x-rays.
    B. Ionized taom beause of an ejected electron which aka photoelectron
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. What are the 3 basic rules that govern the possibility of a PE? ( pick three )
    A. Incident x-ray photon energy must be greater than the binding energy of the innershell
    B. A photoelectric interaction is more likely to occur wen the x-ray photon energy and the electron binding energy are nearer to one another
    C. A photoelectri interaction is morel ikely ot occur with an electron that is more tightly bound in its orbit
    D. Incident x-ray photon energy must be less than the binding energy of the inner shell.
    E. A photo electric interaction is more likely to occur when the x-ray photon energy and the electron binding energy are farther to one another.
    • - Incident x-ray photon energy mustb e greater than teh binding energy of the innershell
    • - A photoelectric interaction is more likely to occur when the x-ray photon energ and the electron binding energy are nearer to one another
    • - A photoelectric interaction is more likely to occur with an electron that is more tightly bound in its orbit.
  27. Explain compton scattering interaction between x-rays and matter.
    A. Occurs when incident x-ray photon intearacts with the inner shell ejecting an electron in turn making photoelectrons.
    B. Occurs when an incident x-ray photon interacts with a loosely bound outer-shell electron removes the electron from its shell, and then proceeds in a different direction as a scatter photon.
    C. Occurs when an incident x-ray photon interacts with the mid-shell ejecting an eletron in turn making a neutron.
    D. None of the above.
    B. Occurs when an incident x-ray photon interacts with a loosely bound outer-shell electron removes the electron from its shell and then proceeds in a different direction as a scatter photon.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Explain coherent scattering inteation between x-rays and matter
    A. An interaction that occurs between very low energy x-ray photons and matter.
    B. An interaction that occurs when incident x-ray photon interacts with a loosely bound outer-shell electron removing the electron from tis shell, and then proceeds in a different direction as a scattered photon.
    C. An interaction that ocurs when incident x-ray photon interacts with an inner shell electron.
    D. None of the above
    A. An inteaction that occurs between very low energy x-ray photons and matter.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. What are the by products of compton interaction?
    A. Dislodged elctron known as a compton or recoil
    B. Photon that exits the atom in a different direction called a compton scattered photon
    C. Asingle electorn inteaction calle thompson.
    D. Involves more than one electron known as rayleigh.
    Two answers:a dislodged electron known as compton/recoil and a photon that exits the atom in a different direction called a compton scattered photon.
  30. What is the predominant interaction in the diagnostic x-ray range?
    A. Photoelectric intereaction
    B. Coherent scattering
    C. Rayleifht scattering
    D. Compton scattering
    D. Compton scattering
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. As kvp increases what inteaction increases in percentage?
    A. Compton scatter increases
    B. Thompson scattering
    C. Photoelectric absorption increases
    D. Coherent scatering increaes
    A. Compton scatter increases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. As kvp decreases what interaction increases in percentage?
    A. Compton scattering
    B. Coherent
    C. Photoelectric absorption
    D. None of the above
    C. Photoelectric absorption
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. When Photoelectric interactions are more prevalent, the radiograph will have ________ contrast.
    A. Radiographic image with high contrast ( short scale )
    B. Radiographic image with low contraset ( long scale )
    C. Radiogrpahic image with low contrast ( short scale )
    A. Radiographic image with high contrast ( short scale )
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. What are the two principle factors that affect the amount of scatter produced
    A. Mas and kvp
    B. Kvp and mas
    C. Kvp and patient thickness
    D. None of the above
    C. Kvp and patient thickness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. How does beam restriction affect scatter production?
    A. Decrease in field size increases scatter.
    B. Increase in field size decrease scatter.
    C. Decrease in field size decreases scatter.
    D. None of the above.
    C. Decrease in field size decreses scatter.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. How does beam restriction affect patient dose?
    A. Increases patient dose
    B. Doesnt affect patient dose
    C. Decreases patient dose
    D. None of the above.
    C. Decreases patient dose.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. How does beam restriction affect beam density?
    A. More density because amount of scatter increases
    B. Less density because of less scatter.
    C. Doesnt affect density
    D. None of the agove
    B. Less density because of less scatter.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. How does beam restriction affect film contrast?
    A. Increases scatter
    B. Scale of contrast shortens.
    C. Scale of contrast becomes longer.
    D. None of the above
    B. Scale of contrast shortens.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. What is penumbra?
    A. Area of geometric longness that increases off-focus radiation
    B. Area of geometric unshortness that decreases off-focus radiation.
    C. Area of geometric unshortness that increases off-focus radiation.
    D. None of the above
    C. Area of geometric unshortness that increases off-focus radiation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. What type of beam restriction is the most effective at reducing penumbra an off-focus radiation?
    A. Collimators
    B. Drying
    C. Archiving
    D. Cylinder cone
    D. Cylider cone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. The upper fixed lead shutters in a collimator serves to...
    A. Control off-focus radiation
    B. Limit the beam size.
    C. Absorb scatter
    A. Control off-focus radiation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. The mirror in the collimator is mounted at what angle?
    A. 95 degrees
    B. 45 degrees
    C. 85 degrees
    D. None of the above
    B. 45 degrees
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. What type of filtration does a collimiator provide?
    A. Added filtration
    B. Primary filtration
    C. Inherent fitration
    D. None of the above
    A. Added filtration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. How does atomic number affect attentuation?
    A. Lower atomic number = more attentuationc
    B. High atomic number = less attentuation
    C. Higher atomic number means more atteuation
    D. None of the above
    C. Higher atomic number mens more attentuation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. How does tissue density affect attenuation?
    A. Less density = less attentuation
    B.. Less attentioation = more density
    C. More density = less attentiaotion
    A. Less density = less attenuation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. What is the purpose of the grid?
    A. Removes scatter completely
    B. Removes crappy x-ray beams
    C. Improve radigraophic contrast by absorbing scatter
    D. None of the above
    C. Improve radiograpic contrast by absorbing scatter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. What is a grid composed of?
    A. Sodium
    B. Lead
    C. Potassium
    D. Lead, nickel or aluminum
    D. Lead nickel or aluminum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. What is grid ratio?
    A. Heigh of lead strips multiplied by half of the distanc between strips
    B. Height of lead strips divided by distance between strips
    C. Yo mama
    D. None of the above
    B. Hieght of lead strips divided by distance between strips
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. What is grid frequency?
    A. number of lead strips per inch/cm
    B. Height of lead strip divided by dsitance between strips
    C. Distance between each lead strip
    D. None of the above
    A. Number of lead strips per inch/cm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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