Lab Final

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Anonymous
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123001
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Lab Final
Updated:
2011-12-12 03:05:26
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29 33 ALD ELISA into thin air
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cardiac cycle, blood, Lorenzo's oil
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  1. SYSTOLE
    the phase of the heart beat when heart ventricular muscle contracts and pumps blood from chambers -> arteries
  2. DIASTOLE
    the phase of the heart beat when ventricular muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood
  3. Cardiac Cycle
    the complete cycle of events in the heart from the beginning of one heart beat to the beginning of the next
  4. When are the AV valves closed?
    during ventricular systole
  5. What event within the heart causes the AV valves to open?
    when the ventricular pressure is lower than atrial pressure
  6. When are the semilunar valves closed?
    during the diastole of the heart as a whole and during atria systole
  7. What event causes the semilunar valves to open?
    the ventricular pressure is greater than the pressure in arteries leaving their chambers
  8. Are both sets of valves closed during any parts of the cycle? When?
    yes, momentarily after atrial systole and ventricular systole
  9. Are both sets of valves open during any part of the cycle?
    no
  10. At what point in the cardiac cycle is the pressure in the heart the highest?
    ventricular systole
  11. Lowest?
    ventricular diastole
  12. What event results in the pressure deflection called the dicrotic notch?
    momentary increase in aortic pressure that occurs when semilunar valve snaps shut
  13. If someones heart rate is 80bpm, what is the length of the cardiac cycle?
    0.75 sec
  14. What portion of the cardiac cycle is shortened with a more rapid heart rate?
    ventricular relaxation
  15. What two factors promote the movement of blood through the heart?
    alternate contraction and relaxation of myocardium, and opening and closing of the heart valves
  16. The length of a normal cardiac cycle
    0.8 sec
  17. The time interval of atrial systole
    0.1 sec
  18. The ventricular contraction period
    0.3 sec
  19. The quiescent period, or pause
    0.4 sec
  20. The monosyllables describing the heart sounds are
    lub - dup
  21. The first heart sound is a result of the closure of the
    AV valves
  22. The second heart sound is a result of the closure of the
    semi lunar valves
  23. The heart chambers that have just been filled when you hear the first sound are the
    ventricles
  24. The chambers that have just been emptied are the
    atria
  25. Immediately after the second heart sound, the ___ and ___ fill with blood
    atria and ventricles
  26. Which valve is heard most clearly when the apical heartbeat is auscultated
    bicuspid valve
  27. How might abnormal sounds be used to diagnose heart problems?
    murmurs often indicates valvular problems. other sounds such as high pitched often indicate valves not closing tightly
  28. Pulse
    rhythmical throbbing of the arteries as blood is propelled through them
  29. Radial
    wrist
  30. Superficial Temporal
    in front of the ear
  31. Dorsal Pedis
    on the dorsum of the foot
  32. Common Carotid
    • at the side of the neck
    • *best because closest to the neck
  33. Femoral
    the thigh
  34. Brachial
    the forearm
  35. Popliteal
    the calf
  36. Systolic Pressure
    ventricular ejection
  37. Diastolic Pressure
    ventricular relaxation
  38. Sounds of Korotkoff
    sounds heard when the arteries decompress and move blood along them
  39. How do venous pressures compare to arterial pressures?
    they are much lower, arterial walls get their pressure via force of the L ventricle, veins get their pressure via muscle pumps
  40. Valsalva
    moderate forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway
  41. Decreased blood pressure
    • increased diameter of the arterioles
    • hemorrhage
  42. Increased blood pressure
    • increased blood velocity
    • increased cardiac output
    • ateriosclerosis
    • increased pulse rate
  43. Position in which your blood pressure is the highest
    reclining
  44. Lowest
    standing
  45. What name is given to the process of RBC production?
    Erythropoiesis
  46. What hormone acts as a stimulus for this process?
    erythropoietin
  47. Why might a patient with kidney disease suffer from anemia?
    • Erythropoietin is produced by the kidneys
    • *treat: increase iron intake
  48. Hematocrit
    percent of the concentration of RBC in the blood
  49. What is an anticoagulant?
    • prevents the blood from clotting
    • thrombin
    • heparin - bodies natural anticoagulant
  50. Explain why RH- patients does not have a transfusion reaction on first exposure to RH + blood, but does on the second?
    Because body has no antibodies and takes time to make them
  51. What happens when ABO blood type is mismatched for the first time?
    you have an immediate reaction because there are antibodies already, they are there 4-6 months after birth
  52. hCG
    • hormone in pregnant women
    • if the test is positive the hCG will show that the antigen has binded to it and is present
  53. Why is ELISA so sensitive?
    because it uses antibodies for its detection method
  54. What is the difference between monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies?
    • monoclonal is one specific type of antigen - bind to only one epitope
    • polyclonal can be made up of different types of antibodies - recognize numerous epitopes
  55. How are monoclonal antibodies generated?
    hybridoma cells

    • mouse injected with desired antigen ->
    • after response, spleen cells are combined with cancer cells ->
    • hybridoma cells ->
    • antibody producing hybridoma cells cloned -> monoclonal antibodies isolated for cultivation
  56. What type of physiological problems do humans encounter at high altitudes?
    • trouble breathing
    • shortness of breath
    • (pulmonary related problems)
  57. What is the specific pulmonary response to high altitude?
    • breathing deeper: hyperventillation
    • breathing faster: tachypnea
  58. Response to overall blood gases?
    • CO2 decrease
    • O2 increase
    • makes it harder to unload O2 from hemoglobin
  59. What physiological changes will occur when someone lives at altitude for an extended period?
    • greater concentration of RBC
    • increased 2:3 DPG
    • *increase transfer of O2 to target tissues
  60. Pathway:
    • increased altitude ->
    • decreased PO2 ->
    • increased demand for RBCs -> Erythropoitein->
    • decreased demand 2,3 DPG-> increased RBCs
    • ? ->
    • increased 2,3 DPG in RBCs
  61. ALD
    • Adreno Leuko Dystrophys
    • only in males
    • most does within 3 years of diagnosis
    • sex-linked
    • female carriers only
  62. The biochemical basis of this disease is related to the metabolism of what molecules?
    very long chain saturated fatty acids
  63. How does the build up of VLCSFAs affect the myelin sheath?
    ALD corrodes myelin -> degeneration of the brain
  64. Polish rats research:
    load diet with one fat and decrease biosynthesis of another
  65. competitive inhibition
    distract the enzyme by keeping it make monounsaturated distracts it from elongating the long chain fats

    adding C22 Erucic acid - causes cardiac problems in rats

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