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the phase of the heart beat when heart ventricular muscle contracts and pumps blood from chambers -> arteries
the phase of the heart beat when ventricular muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood
the complete cycle of events in the heart from the beginning of one heart beat to the beginning of the next
When are the AV valves closed?
during ventricular systole
What event within the heart causes the AV valves to open?
when the ventricular pressure is lower than atrial pressure
When are the semilunar valves closed?
during the diastole of the heart as a whole and during atria systole
What event causes the semilunar valves to open?
the ventricular pressure is greater than the pressure in arteries leaving their chambers
Are both sets of valves closed during any parts of the cycle? When?
yes, momentarily after atrial systole and ventricular systole
Are both sets of valves open during any part of the cycle?
At what point in the cardiac cycle is the pressure in the heart the highest?
What event results in the pressure deflection called the dicrotic notch?
momentary increase in aortic pressure that occurs when semilunar valve snaps shut
If someones heart rate is 80bpm, what is the length of the cardiac cycle?
What portion of the cardiac cycle is shortened with a more rapid heart rate?
What two factors promote the movement of blood through the heart?
alternate contraction and relaxation of myocardium, and opening and closing of the heart valves
The length of a normal cardiac cycle
The time interval of atrial systole
The ventricular contraction period
The quiescent period, or pause
The monosyllables describing the heart sounds are
lub - dup
The first heart sound is a result of the closure of the
The second heart sound is a result of the closure of the
semi lunar valves
The heart chambers that have just been filled when you hear the first sound are the
The chambers that have just been emptied are the
Immediately after the second heart sound, the ___ and ___ fill with blood
atria and ventricles
Which valve is heard most clearly when the apical heartbeat is auscultated
How might abnormal sounds be used to diagnose heart problems?
murmurs often indicates valvular problems. other sounds such as high pitched often indicate valves not closing tightly
rhythmical throbbing of the arteries as blood is propelled through them
in front of the ear
on the dorsum of the foot
- at the side of the neck
- *best because closest to the neck
Sounds of Korotkoff
sounds heard when the arteries decompress and move blood along them
How do venous pressures compare to arterial pressures?
they are much lower, arterial walls get their pressure via force of the L ventricle, veins get their pressure via muscle pumps
moderate forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway
Decreased blood pressure
- increased diameter of the arterioles
Increased blood pressure
- increased blood velocity
- increased cardiac output
- increased pulse rate
Position in which your blood pressure is the highest
What name is given to the process of RBC production?
What hormone acts as a stimulus for this process?
Why might a patient with kidney disease suffer from anemia?
- Erythropoietin is produced by the kidneys
- *treat: increase iron intake
percent of the concentration of RBC in the blood
What is an anticoagulant?
- prevents the blood from clotting
- heparin - bodies natural anticoagulant
Explain why RH- patients does not have a transfusion reaction on first exposure to RH + blood, but does on the second?
Because body has no antibodies and takes time to make them
What happens when ABO blood type is mismatched for the first time?
you have an immediate reaction because there are antibodies already, they are there 4-6 months after birth
- hormone in pregnant women
- if the test is positive the hCG will show that the antigen has binded to it and is present
Why is ELISA so sensitive?
because it uses antibodies for its detection method
What is the difference between monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies?
- monoclonal is one specific type of antigen - bind to only one epitope
- polyclonal can be made up of different types of antibodies - recognize numerous epitopes
How are monoclonal antibodies generated?
- mouse injected with desired antigen ->
- after response, spleen cells are combined with cancer cells ->
- hybridoma cells ->
- antibody producing hybridoma cells cloned -> monoclonal antibodies isolated for cultivation
What type of physiological problems do humans encounter at high altitudes?
- trouble breathing
- shortness of breath
- (pulmonary related problems)
What is the specific pulmonary response to high altitude?
- breathing deeper: hyperventillation
- breathing faster: tachypnea
Response to overall blood gases?
- CO2 decrease
- O2 increase
- makes it harder to unload O2 from hemoglobin
What physiological changes will occur when someone lives at altitude for an extended period?
- greater concentration of RBC
- increased 2:3 DPG
- *increase transfer of O2 to target tissues
- increased altitude ->
- decreased PO2 ->
- increased demand for RBCs -> Erythropoitein->
- decreased demand 2,3 DPG-> increased RBCs
- ? ->
- increased 2,3 DPG in RBCs
- Adreno Leuko Dystrophys
- only in males
- most does within 3 years of diagnosis
- female carriers only
The biochemical basis of this disease is related to the metabolism of what molecules?
very long chain saturated fatty acids
How does the build up of VLCSFAs affect the myelin sheath?
ALD corrodes myelin -> degeneration of the brain
Polish rats research:
load diet with one fat and decrease biosynthesis of another
distract the enzyme by keeping it make monounsaturated distracts it from elongating the long chain fats
adding C22 Erucic acid - causes cardiac problems in rats
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