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  1. What are the 5 essential elements to the definition of punishment?
    • There are at least 2 persons- one who inflicts the punishment and one who is punished
    • The person who inflicts the punishment causes a certain harm to the person who is being punished
    • The person who inflicts the punishment has been authorized, under a system of rules or laws, to harm the person who is punished in this particular way
    • The person who is being punished has been judged by a representative of that authority to have done what he or she is forbidden to do or failed to do what he or she is required to do by some relevant rule or law
    • The harm that is inflicted upon the person who is being punished is specifically for the act or omission mentioned in condition 4
  2. What is the basic premise of the retributive rationale for punishment?
    Social contract theory, punishment is an end in itself and should be balanced to the harm caused
  3. Which school of thought sees criminal acts as symptoms of underlying pathology?
    Treatment ethic
  4. What is permissive retribution?
    Allows that one who is guilty may be punished
  5. Which type of sentencing is based on the seriousness of the crime & is consistent with retributive punishment?
    Just deserts model
  6. The _______ model of punishment argues that punishment should be purely retributive and balanced to the seriousness of the crime.
    Justice model
  7. Penal harm refers to ___________________.
    The idea that the system intentionally inflicts pain on offenders during their imprisonment, because merely depriving them of liberty is not considered sufficiently painful
  8. Detaining only those who are at the highest risk of offending or re-offending is referred to as ____________________.
    Three-strikes laws
  9. What is pluralistic ignorance?
    The prevalent misperception of the popularity of a belief among a group because of the influence of a vocal minority
  10. Which ethical system is consistent with restorative justice?
    Ethics of care
  11. How would the veil of ignorance be applied to the rules of punishment?
    The people who are sentencing should believe that they are on the same level as the offender, instead of feeling superior and lengthening the sentence.
  12. What does the evidence indicate concerning private prisons saving money for state governments?
    They are $3200-7800 less per year per inmate to run than state-run prisions
  13. What was the effect of the Prison Litigation Reform Act of 1996?
    It drastically curtailed the ability of inmates to file lawsuits and made it nearly impossible for federal courts to order consent decrees or order injunctive relief. It also limited attorney's fees.
  14. What do both correctional officers & inmates agree upon as the characteristics of a good correctional officer?
    One who treats all inmates fairly with no favoritism but who does not always follow rules to the letter
  15. What are some of the major characteristics of the position of jail officer?
    Deal with a transitory population rather than a fairly stable one like correctional officers. Their inmates include truant children, violent criminals, misdemeanants, mentally ill, and mentally challenged. Many times offenders come to the jail intoxicated
  16. What are the ethical dilemmas faced by treatment staff in correctional facilities?
    Derives from their dual goals of treating the individual and being an employee of the state with a corresponding duty to maintain safety and security. The professional goal of all treatment specialists is to help the client, but sometimes helping the client is at odds with the safety and security of the institution
  17. According to Haag, what are the ethical dilemmas faced by prison psychologists?
    Confidentiality, protection of psychological records, informed consent, assessment, corroboration, refusal of services, nondiscrimination, competence, knowledge of legal structure, accuracy and honesty, misuses of psychological information, and multiple relationships
  18. What are the major roles of probation & parole officers?
    • Parole- make decisions regarding release
    • Probation- write presentence reports to help judges decide sentences
    • Both have the power to recommend revocation.
  19. What is the major difference between probation and parole officers?
    Parolees are perceived to be more of a threat to the community, so the supervision role of parole officers is emphasized much more strongly than in probation, where supervision is balanced with service/counseling emphasis. Also, paroled offenders are usually older and have a longer criminal record, so the relationship between supervisor and client might be different
  20. What are the major findings of a Justice Department study concerning recidivism among released inmates?
    • Worse than 20 years ago, despite the longer sentences imposed
    • Men were more likely than women to recidivate, blacks were more likely than whites, and young people (under 18) were more likely than older offenders (45 and above)
    • Offenders with the highest recidivism rates included car thieves, those convicted of receipt of stolen property, burglars, and those convicted of robbery
  21. Why do jail officers have a harder job than correctional officers in prisons?
    Deal with a transitory population rather than a fairly stable one like correctional officers. Their inmates include truant children, violent criminals, misdemeanants, mentally ill, and mentally challenged. Many times offenders come to the jail intoxicated
  22. What is the principle of double effect & an example of it?
    • The concept that a means taken for a good end results in the good end but also in an inevitable but unintended bad result
    • Example: if one bombs a military target and innocents are harmed during the bombing, the act, if otherwise considered ethical, does not become unethical because of the death of civilians
  23. According to the text, interrogators at Guantanamo were trained using what materials?
    Coercive interrogation techniques with material that was originally from a 1957 Air Force study of Chinese Communist techniques used during the Korean War
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