Business Ethics Final.txt

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Business Ethics Final.txt
2011-12-12 03:38:03

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  1. civil disobedience
    breaking of a civil law in protest by citing obedience to a higher law
  2. Immanuel Kant
    that states unconditionally that one must act in such a way as to desire his or her actions to become universal laws binding on everyone.
  3. John Stuart Mill
    confounded that the quality of pleasure was more important than the mere quantity of pleasure
  4. Adam Smith
    • Capitalist
    • Invisible Hand - will control the market switching from consumer to producer and vice versa.
    • Laissez Faire - to let do
  5. Milton Friedman
    Nobel prize winning ecnomist from the University of Chicago. was a long-standing critic of occupational licensure in all fields. Friedman reasoning Licensure- the requirement that one obtain a lisence from a recognized authority in order to engage in an occupation - restricts entry into the field.
  6. John Rawls
    • (Veil of ignorance) �no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status; nor does he know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence and strength, and the like."
    • (Original Position) This choice is made from behind a veil of ignorance, which would deprive participants of information about their particular characteristics: his or her ethnicity, social status, gender and, crucially, Conception of the Good (an individual's idea of how to lead a good life).
    • difference principle states that inequalities are justified only if they work to the benefit of the least-advantaged group in society
    • TWO PRINCIPLES 1. Each person is to have equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all
    • 2. Social and economic inequalities are to satisfy two conditions: first, they are to be attached to positions and offices open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity; and second, they are to be to be the greatest expected benefit of the least-advantaged members of society
  7. Robert Nozick
    Author of Anarchy, State, and Utopia . Harvard Libertarian professor; agreed with Rawls but thought he didn't go far enough in the original position principle
  8. Ethics
    (Moral Philosophy) is a broad field of inquiry that addresses a fundamental query that all of us, at least from time to time, inevitably think about - namely, how should i live my life?
  9. Business ethics
    What constitutes right and wrong, or good and bad, human conduct in a business context
  10. Moral rights
    Derive from special relationships, roles, or circumstances in which we happen to be.
  11. Legal rights
    Right to drive under certain conditions is derived from our legal system and thus considered a Legal right.
  12. Negative rights
    Vital interests that human beings have in being free from outside interference. Rights that cannot be taken away like freedom of speech, assembly, religion, press, and so on Note: NOT BAD THING
  13. Positive rights
    Reflect vital interests that human beings have in recieving cerain benefits. They are rights to have others provide us with certian goods, services, or oppotunities.
  14. BFOQ (Bona Fide Occupational qualifications)
    Job specifications to which civil rights law does not apply
  15. Seniority
    refers to longevity on a job with a firm
  16. Nepotism
    the practice of showing favoritism to relatives and close friends
  17. Fair wages
    Company practices that lead to sustainable wage developments
  18. Living wage
    the amount of money a full time employee needs to afford the necessities of life
  19. Knights of Labor
    Established in 1869 considered to be the first national trade union
  20. National labor relations act (Wagner act)
    prohibited employers from interfering with employees trying to organize unions, from attempting to gain control over labor unions, from treating union workers differently from non union workers, and refusing to bargain with union representatives.
  21. Taft hartly act
    amended the national labor relation's act
  22. Card check
    the majority of workers at a company to demonstrate their desire for a union by singing up to join it
  23. Direct strike
    cessation of work by employees with the same industrial grievance
  24. Sympathetic strike
    occurs when workers who have no particular grievance of their own and who may or may not have the same employer decide to strike in support of others.
  25. Boycott
    occurs when union members and their supporters refuse to buy products from a company being struck
  26. Abuse of official position
    using one's official position for personal gain
  27. Bribe
    to pay someone to violate his or her official position
  28. Conflict of interest
    arises when employees have a personal interest in a transaction substantial enough that it might reasonably be expected to affect their judgment or lead them to act against the interest of the organization.
  29. Kickback
    a percentage payment to a person able to influence or control a source of income
  30. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
    made it illegal for American companies to engage in bribery overseas
  31. Sarbanes (Oxley act)
    provides sweeping new legal protection for employees who report possible securities fraud, making it unlawful for companies to discharge, demote, suspend, threaten, harass, or in any other manner discriminate against them
  32. Trade secrets
    is any formula, pattern, device, or compilation of information which is used in one's business and which gives him an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it
  33. Comparable worth
    holds that men and women should be paid on the same scale not only for doing the same or equivalent jobs but also for different jobs involving equal skill, effort, and responsibility
  34. Job discrimination
    occurs when an employment decision in some way harms or disadvantages an employee or a job applicant; the decision is based on the persons membership in a certain group; rather than on individual merit, the decision rests on prejudice, false stereotypes, or the assumption that the group in question is in some way inferior and this does not deserve equal treatment.
  35. Brown vs. board of education
    in 1954 the Supreme Court decided that segregated schooling is unconstitutional
  36. Civil rights act of 1964
    forbids discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, and national origin
  37. EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission)
    independent federal law enforcement agency that enforces laws against workplace discrimination
  38. Sexual harassment
    form of discrimination that is caused by a man or women making a sexual remark or sexual pass at a personDefine deontology, utilitarianism, cost-benefit analysis and moral relativism.
  39. Explain the differences.
    • Deontology an ethical theory that evaluates behavior in terms of adherence to duty or obligation, regardless of consequences
    • Utilitarian greatest good; greatest number.
    • Cost-benefit analysis weighing out the costs and benefits of any decision beforehand
    • Moral relativismMoral relativism is the view that ethical standards, morality, and positions of right or wrong are culturally based and therefore subject to a person's individual choice
  40. Tell the story of Republic Windows and Doors. What were the issues, what did people do, who supported them, and why? What was the outcome?
    Barack Obama supported; people got fired abruptly and didn�t get any notice; the people had sit-in; a new company came in a bought the company and kept all the people.
  41. Discuss wages in terms of distributive justice.
    • -Distributive Justice: to the proper distribution of social benefits and burdens (in particular, economic benefits and burdens)
    • Wages are what a company pays their employee based off contribution to the firm, the market for labor and products, the competitive position of the company, the bargaining power of the firm and unions, seasonal labor fluctuations, and individual needs all conspire to make a simple answer impossible.What is a fair wage
  42. Discuss companies that look beyond the bottom line? What are the advantages and ethical issues?
    Bottom line is net profit for a business; Advantages workers are happier; have good employee turnover; workers want to work for the company;
  43. What are civil liberties? Explain the meaning of civil liberties in the workplace.
    -Civil Liberties: are rights and freedoms that provide individuals with specific rights; include the rights of people, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech, and additionally, the right to due process, to a trial, to own property, and to privacy.
  44. Who are George Galatis and George Betancourt? What did they do and what was the result? Explain the ethics of whistle-blowing.
    Galatis was a senior engineer at Northeast Milestone No.1 Nuclear Power Plant; Betancourt an engineer; the plant�s procedures routinely violated federal guidelines and pushed its spent-fuel pool well beyond its design capacity. 18 months Galatis supervisors denied the problem and refused to report it to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). He took the case to the NRC himself and was harassed and intimidated and 2 dozen employees were claimed to be fired or demoted for raising safety concerns. whistle blowing is about doing the right thing even if your company won�t and even if it gets you fired or demoted
  45. What is the meaning of employment at will? What is meant by just cause for discharge? What is due process and how is it relevant in firing?
    • -Employment at will: can be terminated by either the employer or the employee at any time for any reason
    • -Just cause: the employer must have a reason to fire anyone as discipline or job performance
    • -due process: the fairness of the procedures an organization uses to impose sanction on employees.
  46. Explain the story of Notre Dame and the football coaches in the first decade of the 21st century.
    Hired the first Head Black Football Coach; Fired him after 3 years unjustly; they normally looked for middle aged white men; had a better record than predecessors in 3 years and still got fired while they kept their jobs.
  47. What is affirmative action? What is reverse discrimination and why is the term misleading? Give the arguments for and against affirmative action.
    • - Affirmative action: taking the race or sex of employees or job candidates into account as a part of a hiring process in order to correct and imbalance of past discrimination
    • -Reverse Discrimination: correcting the imbalance of past discrimination (critics call it this)
    • -Arguments= diversifies the workplace vs. taking someone under qualified
  48. Explain the difference between Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger
    • Grutter vs. Bollinger: University Michigan the law school was looking for more white students in order to correct an imbalance of students; a white student would be out a minority student who had better grades and better test scores.
    • Gratz vs. Bollinger: companion case; gave underrepresented groups an automatic 20-point bonus on a 150-point scale in use to rank applicants.