Final exam - terms.txt

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Final exam - terms.txt
2011-12-12 03:46:56
US history

Final exam review
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  1. Pro-slavery ideology
    • Argued that slavery was a "positive good" rather than a "necessary evil."
    • Everyone benefits from slavery; slaves provided for, others enjoy goods and don't have to do hard labor
    • Argued slavery was better than wage labor system, since southern slaves were "taken care of" while workers in northern factories had no one to look after them
  2. Andrew Johnson
    • Took over presidency after Lincoln was assassinated in 1865
    • Although he accepted emancipation, he was still racist and opposed equal rights for blacks
    • Seemed to want to take revenge on southern elite since they had to request pardons, but he eventually made pardons much easier to receive
    • Stood against radical republicans in his views of reconstruction
  3. Horace Mann
    • Proponent of the "common school"; available to all children in the US
    • Standardized curriculum would create a unified national identity
    • Would equalize the condition of men and give opportunities to all
    • Employed female teachers (paid less) and used McGuffey Readers
    • Not a common experience; rich, poor, immigrants, slaves and natives didn't go to the schools
  4. Compromise of 1850
    • Penned by senator Henry Clay
    • CA comes into union as a free state (although slavery was practiced there)
    • Slave trade was abolished in Washington DC
    • Stronger fugitive slave law
    • New Mexico and Utah would be decided by popular sovereignty
  5. John Brown
    • "Free-state" advocate in Kansas - waged war against pro-slavery people in KS
    • Potawatomie Massacre in response to Sen. Sumner being beaten by southern senator
    • Got press attention and became a hero in the north
    • Failed rebellion at Harvest Ferry, VA in 1859; tried to get weapons to start black rebellion
    • Southerners tied his ideas to Lincoln and were threatened by him
  6. King Cotton
    • Cotton gin made cotton production increase in the south; replaced tobacco as staple crop
    • Southern economy exported cotton and world dependence on cotton made southern production very profitable
    • Dependence on cotton made slavery stay in the south; slaves were single most valuable financial asset
    • South thought they had an upper hand in conflict in north because of cotton; could get help from cotton-dependent nations
  7. Worcester v. Georgia
    • Supreme court decision by John Marshall that Cherokees in GA were a distinct community
    • Laws of GA had no force on Cherokees, and Georgians couldn't enter Cherokee land without permission
    • Andrew Jackson opposed this decision; Georgians also ignored it and opposed having a sovereign nation within the borders of GA
    • Eventually led to the Trail of Tears; removal of Cherokees from GA to OK
  8. Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • Sen Steven Douglas of IL wanted to fund a rail line from IL to CA
    • Promoted establishment of territorial governments in KS and NE; under existing MO compromise, they would be free territories
    • To expedite process, he nullifies MO compromise and opens states to popular sovereignty to get southern support
    • Assumed that climate and soil would keep slavery out of these territories
    • Divides northern and southern Democrats, leads to Lincoln's election and secession
  9. Temperance
    • Lyman Beecher forms American Temperance Society in 1826
    • Aim was to use moral suasion to convince Americans not to drink; women protested at saloons
    • American Temperance Union aimed for legislation against alcohol; successful on local level
    • Establishment of "Washingtonian societies" to keep people sober
    • By 1845, 30-35% reduction in alcohol consumption across all class and ethnic groups
  10. Andrew Jackson
    • Ran for president as a "common man" since western expansion made the self-made man possible
    • Strong advocate of Indian removal
    • Brought party politics to 19th century when his newly organized Democratic party defeated John Quincy Adams in 1828
  11. Republican Motherhood
    • During revolution, men saw women as having important role as republican mothers; responsible for raising good citizens
    • Results in education for women so they can educate children
    • Builds into movement for women's rights
  12. The Cult of True Womanhood
    • Women's role in 19th century separate spheres ideology; women's role was in the private sphere (home, kitchen, children)
    • Women weren't supposed to be in the public sphere because it was male domain and was corrupting
    • Women were supposed to be the moral center of the household
  13. Dred Scott v. Sanford
    • 1857 Supreme Court decision
    • Slave sued his master for freedom after having lived in a free state
    • Ruling said slaves could still be property, even if brought from south to north
    • Ruled that slaves weren't citizens or even really human beings
    • Said the MO compromise and Wilmot Proviso (popular sovereignty) were unconstitutional, and Congress couldn't ban slavery in any state or territory
  14. Abolition
    • Most radical form of anti-slavery; said slavery needs to end now, without compensation for slave owners, and equal rights given to blacks
    • Women featured prominently in abolition movement
    • Douglas's narrative tried to persuade middle-class white northerners to join abolitionist cause
  15. Shays's Rebellion
    • Farmer rebellion in MA under Articles of Confederation
    • Farmers complained taxes were too high and lands were being taken away
    • Since land was linked to liberty, they argued that the MA government was tyrannical
    • Rebellion stopped by the state militia
    • Made clear that the Articles couldn't work because of no way to respond to rebellions, and no way to check states' power
  16. Free Labor Ideology
    • Northern opposition to slavery; required hard work and independence to succeed
    • Success could be achieved by hard work, regardless of circumstances or origin
    • Wage labor was only meant to be temporary
    • Lincoln embodied this ideology; from humble roots to one of wealthiest men in America and president
    • Sparks war with Mexico over Texas so northerners can access land (independence)
    • Wilmot Provision provided for no slavery in land acquired from Mexico; pave the way for white free labor
  17. Harriet Beecher Stowe
    • Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin in response to fugitive slave act
    • About an escaped slave family, highlighted problems with fugitive slave act
    • Many readers had an emotional response to the book; forced those on the fence to take a stance on slaver
  18. The Emancipation Proclamation
    • Lincoln's stance on slavery was mixed; thought it was morally wrong, but unsure of power to get rid of it, especially since his priority was union
    • Carefully wrote his proclamation to free slaves in Confederate states; didn't free those in Union slave states or in Confederate areas under Union control
    • Effectively freed slaves where there was no power to enforce the law
    • Although legally ambiguous, morally and politically, it defined the war as against slavery, which he had avoided to keep the border slave states loyal to the Union
  19. Charles Sumner
    • Radical anti-slavery congressman
    • Opposed Kansas-Nebraska act for breaking MO compromise and opening up northern states to slavery
    • Beaten by cousin of a southern senator that he openly opposed in Congress
    • Further divided north and south in reaction to act
    • Part of what caused John Brown to carry out his Potawatomie Massacre against pro-slavery settlers in KS
  20. Helen Jewett
    • Prostitute killed in bed in 1836; death drew much attention
    • Fueled moral reform attempts in NY against "uncontrolled male sexuality that presents a threat to society and women"
    • Moral reformers saw it as men's fault, not women's
    • Through Jewett's case, people discovered that many prostitutes weren't pure victims and chose their lifestyle for freedom and money
  21. Popular Sovereignty
    • States would decide whether to be slave or free states by voting; took problem out of Congress
    • Controversial because it opened up territories that would have been free (MO compromise) to slavery; this happened with the KS-NE act
    • Bleeding Kansas as a result between pro- and anti-slavery settlers; much voting fraud and violence cast doubt on the usefulness of poplar sovereignty in deciding states' slave status
  22. 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
    • 13th: abolition of slavery, supported by Lincoln and turned war to save Union into war to free slaves
    • 14th: all born or naturalized in US are citizens, no state can take away rights; representation apportioned according to population of voters (i.e. if states take away black voting rights, they don't get counted); no former rebels in office unless Congress approves it; declared Confederate debt void and guaranteed Union's war debt
    • 15th: Right to vote for citizens regardless of race, color, or prior slave status
  23. The Articles of Confederation
    • State governments had most power, avoided tyranny by less power in central government
    • Central government could declare war but not raise taxes
    • Amendments required unanimous vote of the states
    • Shays's Rebellion showed Articles wouldn't work; government couldn't stop rebellion or control power of the states
  24. The Louisiana Purchase
    • France sold Louisiana territory to US to fund war against Britain
    • Gave opportunities for expansion to many Western settlers
    • US gained many non-American people; natives, French, Spanish, blacks; excluded them from self-government until Congress allowed it; went against Jefferson's "empire of liberty"
    • Lewis and Clark expedition sent to explore territory and make treaties with natives