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pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, behaviors that characterize how an individual adapts to the world
Which perspective endorses unconscious motion?
For Freud, what is the primary motivating force behind behvior?
- consists of unconscious drives
- reservoir of sexual energy
- works according to pleasure principle
- deals with demands of reality
- abides by reality principle
- evaluate morality of behavior
- reflected in "conscience"
tactics ego uses to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Psychosexual stages (order)
oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency period, genital stage
Oral Stage (first 18 months)
pleasure centers around mouth (chewing, sucking, biting reduce tension)`
Anal Stage (18 to 36 months)
pleasure centers around anus and urethra and their functions (toilet training)
Phallic Stage (3 to 6 years)
Pleasure focuses on genitals (discovery that self-stimulation in enjoyable)
Latency Period ( 6 years to puberty)
- setting aside all interest in sexuality
- no real development (according to Freud)
Genital Stage (puberty to adulthood)
- sexual reawakening
- source of sexual pleasure outside family
How does fixation at a particular psychosexual stage influence adult behavior?
That stage colors a person's personality
What does Jung mean by collective unconscious?
- impersonal, deepest layer of unconscious mind
- shared by all human beings because of ancestral past
What does Jung mean by archetypes?
emotionally-laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people
What archetypes refer to masculinity and femininity?
- anima (passive feminine side)
- animus (assertive masculine side)
According to Adler, compensation is...
the individual's attempt to overcome imagined or real inferiorities or weaknesses by developing one's own abilities
According to Adler, inferiority is...
experienced as infants and young children when we interact with bigger, more poweful people
According to Rogers what is unconditional positive regard?
being accepted, valued and treated positively
According to Rogers, how is unconditional positive regard used to avoid the development of conditions of worth?
even when a person's behavior is inappropriate, obnoxious, or unacceptable, he or she still needs respect, comfort, and love of others
What is the method proposed by Rogers to develop a more positive self-concept?
the individual must experience a relationship that includes three essential qualities; unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuineness
How do trait theories of personality characterize personality?
consists of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses
What are the big 5 personality traits?
- Openness to Experience
- Neuroticism (Emotional Instability)
- imaginative or practical
- interested in variety or routine
- independent or conforming
- Organized or disorganized
- Careful or careless
- Disciplined or impulsive
- Sociable or retiring
- Fun-loving or somber
- Affectionate or reserved
- Softhearted or ruthless
- Trusting or suspicious
- Helpful or uncooperative
- Calm or anxious
- Secure or insecure
- Self-satisfied or self-pitying
briefer experiences, such as moods
Which perspective on personality places emphasis on conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals?
the way behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors interact to create personality
the belief that one has the competence to accomplish a given goal or task
Why, according to your text, did Mischel almost “derail the scientific study of personality”?
no evidence of cross-situational consistency
Which neurotransmitter is associated with extraversion?
Results of behavioral genetics twin studies suggest that heritability estimates for the big five personality factors are about percent?
directly asks people whether different items describe their personality traits
when movitvated by social desirability, individuals say what they think the researcher wants to hear or what they think will make them look better
Empircally Keyed Test
a type of self-report test that presents many questionnaire items to two groups that are known to be different in some central way
Which type of self-report is developed as an empirically keyed test?
MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
quality of seeming, on the surface, to fit a particular trait in question
personality assessment test that represents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and asks them to describe ot or tell a sstory about it---to project their own meaning onto the stimulus
Rorschach Inkblot Test
- ten inkblots, when described, scored for indicating underlying psychological charcateristics
- reliability and validity criticized
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
- designed to elicit stories that reveal personality
- higher reliability and validity
If your clinician emphasizes the role of unconscious processes and unresolved childhood conflicts, with which psychological approach does he/she align with?
the variable the experimenter changes to see what its effects are
the factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable
What structures make up the central nervous system?
brain and spinal cord
What is the role of the sympathetic nervous system?
arouses the body to mobilize it for action
What theory of learning focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activity as thinking, wishing, and hoping?
learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response
the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior's occurence
Three processes of memory:
encoding, storage and retrieval
Activities associated with encoding information:
- level of processing
What is studied in the field of cognitive psychology?
Approaches seeking to explain observable behavior by investigating mental processes and structures that cannot be directly observed
What is a teratogen?
any agent that causes a birth defect (e.g. chemical substances ingested by the mother, certain illnesses (nicotine, rubella))