western civ final study

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shaiangelz
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western civ final study
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2011-12-12 10:58:16
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western civ final study
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  1. Portuguese leader who financed trade innovation was ___
    Henry the Navigator
  2. Head of the Catholic Church?
    Pope
  3. A geographic obstacle to equatorial Africa is the ____
    Saharan Desert
  4. A triangular sail that allowed for "tacking" was called a ___
    lanteen sail
  5. Sailing parallel to the equator is called ____ sailing
    latitudinal
  6. Christoforo Columbo's home town in northern Italy was ___
    Genoa
  7. Although a spice, merchants quickly understood that ____ soon became perceived a 'necessity'
    cinnamon
  8. _____ traveled and wrote extensively about this journey to china in the first quarter of the 13th century in his book titled Travels
    Marco Polo
  9. Military campaign directed against Moslems in the "Holy Land" were called ____
    crusades
  10. Imaginary emperor in sub-Saharan Africa written about by John Mandeville was ___
    Prestor John
  11. The largest Portuguese speaking country in the world is _____. It was discovered by accident on Christmast Day, 1500
    Brazil
  12. This Chinese invention helped sailors navigate beyond the sight of land was called a ____
    compass
  13. Documents showing ownership or a "share" in a capital enterprise are called a ____
    stock
  14. An arrangement of labor and land usage in the New World approved by the Catholic Church was called an ____
    encomienda
  15. Isabella's soldiers of fortune were called ____
    conquistador

    The crusade was called the Reconquista
  16. His rule over the largest empire in history provided safe passage for Venetian merchants. But then, he died and overland routes to China became dangerous for trade. His name was ___
    Ghanis Khan
  17. These hyper-accurate charts showed depth, currents and shorelines. They were called ____
    portalani
  18. His Geography, written in the 4th century BC, suggested the world was much smaller than it really is. And of course, he put Greece in the center of everything. His name was ____
    Ptolemy
  19. This northern Italian port-city, _____, was one of the first communities to engage in and profit from Mediterranean commerce in the Renaissance
    Venice
  20. A neurotoxin, ____, was possibly related to the sudden increase in the trials and executions of people accused of witchcraft
    ergot
  21. The new type of government chosen by many kings following the 30 years war is known as
    divine-right monarchy
  22. What were the names of the ships that went west with Christoforo Columbo on his first voyage?
    Pinta, Nina, and Santa Maria
  23. Which of the following was the most financially successful of Spain's soldiers of fortune?

    A. ponce de leon
    B. hernando cortez
    C. alvaca de nuna
    D. bartholomew de las casas
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Short answer:
    What was mercantilism, and what was the relationship to colonial empires?
    • An economic philosophy that wealth had a limit, which means that if someone had a bigger share, the other would have the smaller share.
    • New economy bc of discovery of the New World, opportunities, joint stock companies, highly individualized relationship with markets; wins and loses
  25. Short answer
    What were some of the possible explanation useful to explain the sudden increase in trials and execution of persons accused of witchcraft between 1582 and 1692?
    isolation of women bc of old age, they tend to outlive men; traditional scapegoating of women; taboo gender knowledge on margins and shadows of society
  26. This French officer of the Catholic Church intrigued and plotted and schemed up ways to organize political power in France around the throne
    Cardinal Richelieu
  27. The "school" of navigation during the 15th century
    Lisbon
  28. Country where Nicolas Copernicus lived and worked
    Poland
  29. In what part of Europe did telescopes come from?
    Netherlands
  30. Hernando Cortex sacked and destroyed this Aztec capital
    Tenochtitlan
  31. This Italian Cardinal had to flee France for his life in 1648 to escape assassination by the followers of Prince du Conde
    Cardinal Mazarin
  32. This English king "restored" the monarchy to the throne in 1660
    Charles II
  33. This opulent palace represented the grandeur and housed the physiocrats of the French Absolutist monarchy
    Versailles
  34. ___ is an example of an Old World crop brought to the New World
    coffee
  35. ____ was the best example of Absolutism in France
    Louis XIV
  36. a "new" type of man in England, the ___ proved great rivals for power in the 1640s and toppled the monarchy of Charles I
    gentry
  37. This King of Denmark began the second phase of the Thirty Years War. He must have thought that the best defense is a good offense
    Christian
  38. This czar of Russia, ____, developed a policy to westernize Russia by superficially imitating European customs
    Peter the Great
  39. What we call a sun-centered model of the universe
    heliocentric
  40. Who was the English King executed in January 1649
    Charles I
  41. Thie astronomer of the Scientific Revolution who had a gold nose
    • Tyco Brahe
    • (Also, astronomer who didnt publish is work)
  42. What was the name of Nicolas Copericus' book?
    On the Revolution of the Heavely Spheres
  43. Interregnum is the Latin word for interruption. Who ruled the "republic" of England between the Civil War (1641) and the Restoration (1660)?
    Oliver Cromwell
  44. What promise of individual liberties did William and Mary agree to abide in 1688?
    Bill of Rights
  45. Which Swedish King utilized rotation and column-and-row formation to dramatically increase the use of concentrated firepower during the third phase of the 30 years war?
    Gustofus Adolphus
  46. Which two countries became allies in the fourth and final phase of the 30 years war?
    France and Sweden
  47. Which of the following countries had the greatest number of linguistic and ethnic identities within its borders?

    A. Prussia
    B. Russia
    C. Austria
    D. France
    E. Poland
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. short answer:
    What did Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo and Newton contribute to a new vision of the universe and how did it differ from the Ptolomic conception of the universe?
    They all said that the sun was the center of the universe and not the Earth.
  49. What theories of government were proposed by Jaques Boussuet, Thomas Hobbes, and John Locke, and how did their respective theories reflect concerns and problems of the 17th century?
    • Jaques Boussuet's theory was that of the divine-right monarchy. He believed that a king is appointed by God and answers to no one but Got. This made people that don't agree with religon and policies of the king mad. It also made peasents more poor since levies were always put on their already full shoulders
    • Thomas Hobbes believed that people should follow the orders of the king without question because human nature is naturally violent and nasty and without someone to rule, people would just destroy themselves
    • John Locke believed that humans are born naturally free and to keep their rights safe, they must have a give and take relationship with the government. The government is supposed to care for its people and in return, the people follow the government's rules.
  50. This work was published by Johann Keppler
    3 laws of Plantary Motion
  51. Country where Nicolas Copernicus lived and worked
    Poland
  52. What was the name of Nicolas Copernicus' book?
    On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres
  53. Which of the following was the weakest example of absolutist rule?

    a. Russia
    b. Prussia
    c. France
    d. Austria
  54. The opening or first phase of the 30 years war began where?
    Bohemia
  55. The ____ were literary people, professors, journalists, statesmen, economists, political scientists and above all, social reformers
    philosophes
  56. This 19th century intellectual and artistic movement rejected the emphasis on reason of the Enlightenment. Instead ___ stressed on the importance of intuition, feeling and emotion
    Romanticism
  57. An important component of a strong government was found in checks and balances among the branches of government. Montesquieu called this a ____
    separation of powers
  58. when the women of paris in 1789 had enough of high bread prices and a distant, aloof king, they took matters into their own hands. The ____ is what were known as the amrch on the Versailles and the attempt of Marie Antoinette's life
    October days
  59. An indictment of 23 allegations all leveled against George III, the ____ justified open revolt against authority
    Declaration of Independence
  60. the elites within the Third Estate and even members of the Second Estate were opposed to the ___ and its reliance on privilege and rigid social order
    old order
  61. the French revolution entered a new phase when power passed from the national assembly to the ___
    sans-culottes
  62. Voltaire championed not only religious toleration, but also __, a religious outlook shared by most other philosophes
    deism
  63. In emphasizing the economics liberty of the individual, Adam Smith laid the foundation for what became known in the 19th century as
    economic liberism

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