Rhetoric Exam #2
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5 Cannons of Rhetoric
Teaching information. Important to rhetoric because it is the most important office of the orator. Without instruction many people would not know how to do and use rhetoric.
Something that is pleasing is enjoyable, pleasurable,interesting, fun, etc. This is important to rhetoric because without the positive reinforcement of something that is pleasing, people would not be motivated.
(Action) It doesnt just give you action, it force you to do something with it. This is important to rhetoric because it is the hardest office of the orator. If you move a soul without the truth, why even move it?
Language that is straight forward. This is important to rhetoric because it is the first style of speech and the style that people start with.
Language that is made interesting. This is important to rhetoric because it is the second style of language, and the style that catches people's attention. Without it language would be boring.
A style of the orator that is different in terms of emotion and passion, not language. It is important to rhetoric because it is what a speech ends in, without it there would be just language with nothing behind it.
The name that was given to the unknown author of On the Sublime. The text was long and thought to have been written by Cassius Longinus. "Longinus" is able to link technical proficiency and a noble personal character in the study of the sublime because he says only a person who possesses both can produce great writings.
Longinus sees it as a quality that has a powerful emotional impact on its audience or, has a impact that awakens the audience members to their "higher natures"
Quintillian's definition of Oratory
Quintillian believed that oratory is the art of speaking well. He believed that it must be both effective and moral. This is important to the study of rhetoric because he was a teacher and his views impacted many people of that time.
Quintillian's definition of the Orator
An orator is a good man skilled in the art of oratory/rhetoric, that speaks well. He believed this man must be virtuous, temperate, knowledgeable, wise and discernment. This is important to rhetoric because it is defining the ideal person who does rhetoric and it is setting the stage for who we want in charge of shaping our society.
Christine De Pizan
Pizan was a woman in the middle ages that fought for women to have the right to speak in church. She is important to the study of rhetoric becaus she is the first recorded women to praise women. We have a foundation for women to work off of in the battle for womens's rights.
Fell was a Quaker who fought for the women to have the right to speak in church. She did this by using the bible and arguing against the traditional views that people see in the bible. She is important to rhetoric because we finally see the importance of women's voices being recorded so that years and years later they dont have to start from the very beginning but rather work on the foundation that other women have started.
Women's Speaking Justified
This is a text written by Margaret Fell that points our her four arguments in the bible that show God believes women should be able to use rhetoric in church. It is important because she usses the very text that defies her argument and through good rhetoric she is able to prove her point.
Treasure of the City of Ladies
This is a text written by Christine De Pizan that uses proofs from the bible to prove women should be able to speak in church. It is important to the study of rhetoric because she is using the very book that sometimes goes against her argument and also this was the first time a women's voice had been recorded praising women. We see how different peoples views on rhetoric can be when they live in different circumstances.
Honor for Pizan
Justification of women Preaching
Fell believes that women should be able to preach because they are constantly called by God to do so. God created both men and women and in doing this he created them equal. This is important to rhetoric because it shows us just how much we in society change the way God wanted things. We created the difference between men and women and made it an issue in society.
4 Mental skills or arts
Invent, Judgement, Retain, and Delivery. They are the 4 intellectual arts as described by Bacon. They are important to the study of rhetoric because for the first time we aren't turning to the bible anymore, but rather figuring out things in the world by finding new information.
Bacon's definition of Rhetoric
To apply a reason to imagination for the better moving of the will. It is putting logic and morality together. This is important to rhetoric because it is the first time we see a practical view of rhetoric and we start to see more and more people investigating the world rather than simply believing what the bible or people in authority tell us to believe.
Logic V. Rhetoric in Bacon
Logic is seen as a strong man with fists and more of a "Im right your wrong" approach. Rhetoric is seen as a women standing with her arms open palms up, symbolizing someone saying "lets talk". It is important to the study of rhetoric because we see that when using rhetoric it can be a discussion to come to the best decision on moral questions rather than just believing what the speaker is saying ans persuading us to believe.
4 Idols in Bacon
Idol of the Tribe (human nature), Idol of the Cave (Individuality), Idol of the Market Place (language), and Idol of the Theater (beliefs, philosophies). They are important to rhetoric because we realize it is impossible to get rid of them but it makes us skeptical of the knowledge we have because we can never be certain that we are seeing the world how it really is, or the way the idols want us to see it.
Humanism is the study of the human. it is centered on humans rather than the bible or God. It is important to rhetoric because it shows us the shift in thinking that went on during the renaissance and helps us see the world in a different way other than through the church.
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