Chemistry Final

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sjmjr
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123041
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Chemistry Final
Updated:
2011-12-12 12:16:16
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Chemistry Final
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Chemistry Final
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  1. Soddy
    Discovered isotopes
  2. Thompson
    Discovered the electron
  3. Rutherford
    discovered the nucleus
  4. Dalton
    Atomic Theory
  5. Curie
    Woman scientist who died of cancer
  6. Octet rule (rule of 8)
    • Atoms are neutral/notstable
    • inert gases are exception neutral/stable
    • all inert gases have an octet of valence electrons
    • He is the exception it has 2 valence electrons
  7. iso-electronic configuration
    atoms are going to gain or lose elctrons to become iso-electronic with the nearest inert gas
  8. gilbert lewis
    • covalent bond
    • dot structures
  9. Linus Pauling
    electronegativity and dipole moment of molecules
  10. dipole moment
    when the electrons are shared unevenly the ends become partially charged
  11. *electronegativity table
    pure covalent
    0.0 - .4
  12. *electronegativity table
    polar covalent
    .5 - 2.0
  13. *electronegativity table
    ionic bond
    2.1 and greater
  14. Homogenious mixtures
    • solute
    • solution
    • solvent
    • saturated/unsaturated
  15. diffusion
    movement of molecules from greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
  16. osmosis
    diffusion of a solvent through a semi-permiable membrane
  17. isotonic tonicity
    cell and solution are the same concentration
  18. hypotonic tonicity
    solution is less concentrated than cell
  19. hypertonic tonicity
    solution is more concentrated than cell
  20. svante arrhenious
    classic definition of acids and bases
  21. Conjugate Base Pairs
    • acids are proton donors
    • bases are proton acceptors
  22. when multipying numbers in exponential for you must
    • add the exponents
    • 102 x 104 = 102+4 = 1,000,000
  23. you find the square root of and exponential number by
    dividing the exponent by 2
  24. definition of pH+
    scasle to quantify acidity. The proportion of hydrogen ions in a solution
  25. what is neutral pH+
    7
  26. what pH+ is greater than 7
    base
  27. what is pH+ less than 7
    acid
  28. buffers
    a solution that resists pH+ change by adding acids or bases to neutralize
  29. sorenson
    concept of pH+
  30. determining pH+
    pH+ = - log [H+]

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