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2011-12-12 14:01:13
Final Exam

Subject for final exam to study
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  1. What is science?
    Science is the study of events or phenomena that occur.
  2. What was the first science?
  3. What is the mission of science?
    To have a better understanding of ourselves and our environment.
  4. What is catogorization
    A method to find or determine relationships between objects
  5. What is the scientific method?
    • 1) Obersvation
    • 2) Hypothesis
    • 3) Prediction
    • 4) Experiment
    • 5) Recycle
  6. Who developed the scientific method?
    Galileo Galilei - 1564-1642
  7. Define oberservation
    To sense an event or phenomena in the real world
  8. Define hypohtesis
    To formulate a general statement that explains the observation.
  9. Define prediction
    To forecast a future event based on the hypothesis.
  10. Define experiment
    To test the prediction in the real world.
  11. Break down the Recycle step of the scientific method.
    a) If the results don't match the prediction, then we modify our hypothesis and repeat steps 2 - 4.

    b) If they do match, repeat steps 3 & 4
  12. What is Newton's 2nd Law?
  13. Define theory
    A theory is composed of several hypotheses and explains a broad scope of phenomena
  14. What is a model?
    A physical diagamatical or mathematical representation of a real object.
  15. What is a law?
    A hypothesis that has never been disproven and has lots of support.
  16. What are the types of reseaoning?
    Deductive and Inductive
  17. What is deductive reseaoning?
    To form the general to the specific (this is good, provided the statement is true).
  18. What is inductive reseaoning?
    Specific to general (a lower level of reseaoning).
  19. Define energy
    Ability or capacity to do work.
  20. Define work.
    Quantity describing the force applied to a body that causes displacement.
  21. What are the six types of energy?
    • 1) Potential
    • 2) Kinetic
    • 3) Thermal)
    • 4) Electromagnetic
    • 5) Nuclear
    • 6) Chemical
  22. What is potential energy?
    Energy associated with a position
  23. What is kinetic energy?
    Energy associated with motion
  24. What is thermal energy?
    Internal energy of a body which is the average kinetic energy of the particals that make up the body
  25. What is Electromagnetic energy?
    Energy assocaited with EM waves
  26. What is nuclear energy?
    Energy associated with the nuclei of atoms
  27. What is chemical energy?
    Energy stored in chemical bonds
  28. Work done by a force can...
    • a) Cause the speed to change
    • b) Cause energy to be stored
    • c) Generate heat
  29. What is the principal of Conservation of Energy?
    Energy can neither be created or destroyed; it can only be transfered from one form to another.
  30. Mathematically, what is work?
    Force * distance
  31. Mathematically, what is potential energy?
    GPE = mgh (Mass * gravity * height)
  32. Mathematically, what is kinetic energy?
    KE = 1/2mv2 (1/2 * mass * velocity2)
  33. Define power
    Rate of change of energy with respect to time.

    P = ΔE/Δt = ΔW/Δt
  34. What is needed for an impulse
    • A force is needed to causea change in motion
    • Time
  35. Define harmonic motion
    A motion that is repeated
  36. Define centripital force
    A center seeking force; a stand alone force
  37. What is the Law of Magnitism?
    Opposite poles attract and like poles repel
  38. What is the purpose of a transformer?
    To change alternating voltage and current without an appreciable loss of power.
  39. What are the states of matter?
    • Solid
    • Liquid
    • Gas
    • Plasma
  40. Define a solid
    A phasa of matter characterized be a definated shape and volume
  41. Define a liquid
    • Definate volume but no definate shape
    • Assumes the shape of the container
  42. Define a gas
    • No definate shape or volume
    • Molecules fill whatever space is availabel
  43. Define a plasma
    • Exists mainly at high temperatures
    • Matter consists of positively charged ions and free electrons
  44. Define a fluid
    • A substance that flows
    • Not necessarily a liquid
  45. What is Pascal's Principal?
    If a fluid is completely enclosed, then a change of preasure at one point in the fluid is transmitted to every other point in the fluid and the walls of the container.
  46. What is Archemede's Principal?
    If a body is completely or partially submerged in a fluid, there is a boyant force on that body that is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.
  47. What is the ideal gas equasion?
    • PV = nRT
    • Preasure*Volume = (# molecules of gas)*(ideal gas constant)*temperature)
  48. What is Boil's Law
  49. What is Bernoulli's Principal?
    A description of the energetic relationship in a moving fluid
  50. Define vibration
    Oscillation of motion (a wiggle in time)
  51. Define a wave
    A wiggle in time and space
  52. What are the types of waves?
    • Transverse (shear waves)
    • Longitudinal (compression waves)
  53. What is a transverse wave?
    Individual particals of the medium vibrate at a right angle to the direction of the wave velocity.
  54. What is a longitudinal wave?
    Particals vibrate in the same direction of the wave velocity.
  55. What is a wavelength?
    Distance between two identical succesive points of the wave
  56. What is amplitude?
    • Distance from the equalibrium to the top of the peak
    • or
    • Distance from the equalibrium to the bottom
  57. What are the types interferance?
    • Constructive
    • Destructive
    • Reflection
    • Absorbtion
  58. What is constructive interference?
    Occurs when waves overlap amplitude and adds to produce a larger amplitude
  59. What is destructive interference?
    Occurs when waves overlap amplitude and adds to produce a smaller amplitude
  60. What is wave reflection?
    The bouncing off of a wave when it hits a surface
  61. What is wave absorbtion?
    Wave do not bounce off of a surface
  62. What is pitch?
    • Measure of highness or lowness of a sound
    • Function of frequency
  63. What is sound propegation?
    How it travels from one place to another
  64. What is sound preception?
    How sound affects the senses.
  65. What is sound volume?
    Measure of the amplitude
  66. What is the fundimental frequency?
    The lowest partial of musical sound
  67. What is harmonic
    A partial where frequency is a whole number multiple of a fundimental frequency
  68. What is the natural frequency?
    Frequency at which an object will vibrate at if disturbed and then removing the disturbing force
  69. What is resonance?
    Occurs if the driving frequency is equal to the natural frequency and a large indrease in amplitude usually results.
  70. What is forced ressonance?
    When an object is driven at a frequency other than its natural frequency.
  71. What are electrostaics?
    Non-moving charges
  72. What is the Law of Charges?
    Oppsites attract and like charges repel
  73. What is voltage?
    Measure of electrical potential energy
  74. What is electrical current?
    Flow of electric charges
  75. What is reflection?
    • The bouncing off of light that is incident upon a surface
    • Θir
  76. What is light refraction?
    The bouncing of light as it passes from a slow medium to a fast medium
  77. What is light dispersion?
    Breaking up white light into its constituent colors
  78. What is light Defraction?
    Spreding of light as it passes through a small opening