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What is science?
Science is the study of events or phenomena that occur.
What was the first science?
What is the mission of science?
To have a better understanding of ourselves and our environment.
What is catogorization
A method to find or determine relationships between objects
What is the scientific method?
- 1) Obersvation
- 2) Hypothesis
- 3) Prediction
- 4) Experiment
- 5) Recycle
Who developed the scientific method?
Galileo Galilei - 1564-1642
To sense an event or phenomena in the real world
To formulate a general statement that explains the observation.
To forecast a future event based on the hypothesis.
To test the prediction in the real world.
Break down the Recycle step of the scientific method.
a) If the results don't match the prediction, then we modify our hypothesis and repeat steps 2 - 4.
b) If they do match, repeat steps 3 & 4
What is Newton's 2nd Law?
A theory is composed of several hypotheses and explains a broad scope of phenomena
What is a model?
A physical diagamatical or mathematical representation of a real object.
What is a law?
A hypothesis that has never been disproven and has lots of support.
What are the types of reseaoning?
Deductive and Inductive
What is deductive reseaoning?
To form the general to the specific (this is good, provided the statement is true).
What is inductive reseaoning?
Specific to general (a lower level of reseaoning).
Ability or capacity to do work.
Quantity describing the force applied to a body that causes displacement.
What are the six types of energy?
- 1) Potential
- 2) Kinetic
- 3) Thermal)
- 4) Electromagnetic
- 5) Nuclear
- 6) Chemical
What is potential energy?
Energy associated with a position
What is kinetic energy?
Energy associated with motion
What is thermal energy?
Internal energy of a body which is the average kinetic energy of the particals that make up the body
What is Electromagnetic energy?
Energy assocaited with EM waves
What is nuclear energy?
Energy associated with the nuclei of atoms
What is chemical energy?
Energy stored in chemical bonds
Work done by a force can...
- a) Cause the speed to change
- b) Cause energy to be stored
- c) Generate heat
What is the principal of Conservation of Energy?
Energy can neither be created or destroyed; it can only be transfered from one form to another.
Mathematically, what is work?
Force * distance
Mathematically, what is potential energy?
GPE = mgh (Mass * gravity * height)
Mathematically, what is kinetic energy?
KE = 1/2mv2 (1/2 * mass * velocity2)
Rate of change of energy with respect to time.
P = ΔE/Δt = ΔW/Δt
What is needed for an impulse
- A force is needed to causea change in motion
Define harmonic motion
A motion that is repeated
Define centripital force
A center seeking force; a stand alone force
What is the Law of Magnitism?
Opposite poles attract and like poles repel
What is the purpose of a transformer?
To change alternating voltage and current without an appreciable loss of power.
What are the states of matter?
Define a solid
A phasa of matter characterized be a definated shape and volume
Define a liquid
- Definate volume but no definate shape
- Assumes the shape of the container
Define a gas
- No definate shape or volume
- Molecules fill whatever space is availabel
Define a plasma
- Exists mainly at high temperatures
- Matter consists of positively charged ions and free electrons
Define a fluid
- A substance that flows
- Not necessarily a liquid
What is Pascal's Principal?
If a fluid is completely enclosed, then a change of preasure at one point in the fluid is transmitted to every other point in the fluid and the walls of the container.
What is Archemede's Principal?
If a body is completely or partially submerged in a fluid, there is a boyant force on that body that is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.
What is the ideal gas equasion?
- PV = nRT
- Preasure*Volume = (# molecules of gas)*(ideal gas constant)*temperature)
What is Boil's Law
What is Bernoulli's Principal?
A description of the energetic relationship in a moving fluid
Oscillation of motion (a wiggle in time)
Define a wave
A wiggle in time and space
What are the types of waves?
- Transverse (shear waves)
- Longitudinal (compression waves)
What is a transverse wave?
Individual particals of the medium vibrate at a right angle to the direction of the wave velocity.
What is a longitudinal wave?
Particals vibrate in the same direction of the wave velocity.
What is a wavelength?
Distance between two identical succesive points of the wave
What is amplitude?
- Distance from the equalibrium to the top of the peak
- Distance from the equalibrium to the bottom
What are the types interferance?
What is constructive interference?
Occurs when waves overlap amplitude and adds to produce a larger amplitude
What is destructive interference?
Occurs when waves overlap amplitude and adds to produce a smaller amplitude
What is wave reflection?
The bouncing off of a wave when it hits a surface
What is wave absorbtion?
Wave do not bounce off of a surface
What is pitch?
- Measure of highness or lowness of a sound
- Function of frequency
What is sound propegation?
How it travels from one place to another
What is sound preception?
How sound affects the senses.
What is sound volume?
Measure of the amplitude
What is the fundimental frequency?
The lowest partial of musical sound
What is harmonic
A partial where frequency is a whole number multiple of a fundimental frequency
What is the natural frequency?
Frequency at which an object will vibrate at if disturbed and then removing the disturbing force
What is resonance?
Occurs if the driving frequency is equal to the natural frequency and a large indrease in amplitude usually results.
What is forced ressonance?
When an object is driven at a frequency other than its natural frequency.
What are electrostaics?
What is the Law of Charges?
Oppsites attract and like charges repel
What is voltage?
Measure of electrical potential energy
What is electrical current?
Flow of electric charges
What is reflection?
- The bouncing off of light that is incident upon a surface
What is light refraction?
The bouncing of light as it passes from a slow medium to a fast medium
What is light dispersion?
Breaking up white light into its constituent colors
What is light Defraction?
Spreding of light as it passes through a small opening