CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY AND MATTER

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cristina.cosmetology
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123059
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CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY AND MATTER
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2011-12-12 13:11:38
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CHEMISTRY NOTES
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  1. DEFINITION OF A SOLID :
    MATTER WITH DEFINATE SHAPE WEIGHT AND VOLUMNE
  2. DEFINITION OF LIQUID :
    MATTER WITH DEFINATE WEIGHT VOLUMNE BUT NO SHAPE
  3. DEFINITION OF GASSES :
    MATTER WITH DEFINATE WEIGHT BUT NOT INDEFINATE SHAPE
  4. A CHEMICAL CHANGE :
    IS A CHANGE IN A SUBSTANCE WITH CHEMICAL CHARECTORISTICS DIFFERENT FROM THOSE OF AN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE
  5. A PHYSICAL CHANGE :
    IS A CHANGE IN A PHYSICAL CHARECTORISTICS OF A NEW SUBSTANCE WITHOUT CREATING A NEW SUBSTANCE
  6. DEFINITION OF CHEMISTRY
    THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF MATTER AND THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF MATTER
  7. DEFINITION OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY :
    DEALS WITH ALL MATTER THAT IS NOW LIVING OR WAS ALIVE AT ONE TIME OR ANOTHER WITH CARBON PRESENT
  8. DEFINITION OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY:
    STUDIES ALL MATTER THAT IS NOT ALIVE HAS NEVER BEEN ALIVE AND DOES NOT CONTAIN CARBON
  9. ELEMENTS:
    ARE ALL BASIC SUBSTANCES THAT CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN INTO SIMPLER SUBSTANCES
  10. MATTER :
    ALL MATTER IS COMPOSED OF ATOMS THEREFORE THEY MAKE UP THE ELEMENTS
  11. HAIR IS A SOLID BUT IS ALSO COMPROMISED OF TWO SOLIDS AND THREE GASSES :
    THE SOLIDS ARE CARBON SULFUR AND THE GASES ARE HYDROGEN NITROGEN AND OXYGEN
  12. THE ACRONYM TO REMEBER WHAT ELEMENTS HAIR ARE COMPRISED OF IS CALLED
    C.O.H.N.S
    • CARBON
    • OXYGEN
    • HYDROGEN
    • NITROGEN
    • SULFUR
  13. ATOMS :
    ARE THE SMALLEST COMPETE UNIT OF AN ELEMENT
  14. ATOMS:
    HAVE THREE MAIN PARTS : PROTONS NEUTRONS AND ELECTRONS TO FORM A DENSE CORE OR NUCLEUS ELECTRONS MOVE ABOUT THIS NUCLEUS ON ORBITING PATHS OR SHELLS AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT
  15. PROTONS :
    HAVE A POSITIVE ELECTRICASL CHARGE + AND IDENTIFY THE ATOM
  16. NEUTRONS :
    HAVE NO ELECTRICAL CHARGE THEY ARE NEUTRAL HENCE THEIR NAME THEY DETERMINE THE WEIGHT OF THE ATOM
  17. ELECTRONS :
    • HAVE A NEGATIVE ELECTRICAL CHARGE -
    • AND UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES THEY MAKE IT POSSIBLE FOR ATOMS TO UNITE WITH OTHER ATOMS TO FORM BONDS
  18. THE ATOMIC NUMBER :
    INDICATES HOW MANY PROTONS ARE IN A SINGLE ATOM OF A PARTICULAR ATOM OF A PARTICULAR ELEMENT
  19. HYDROGEN :
  20. IS THE SIMPLEST ATOMIC STRUCTURE
  21. MOLECULES :
    UNSTABLE ATOMS SEEK OTHER ATOMS WITH WHICH THEY CAN SHARE ELECTRONS TO COMPLETE THEIR OUTER SHELL WHRN THEY COMBINE THEY MAKE MORE COMPLEX UNITS KNOWN AS MOLECULES
  22. MOLECULES :
    A MOLOCULE IS WHEN 2 OR MORE ATOMS JOIN TOGETHER BY A CHEMICAL BOND
  23. COMPUND S:
    • IF AN ATOM THAT COMBINES ARE DIFFERENT THE RESULTING MOLECULE IS A COMPOUND
    • DIFFERENT ATOMS JOIN TOGETHER AS MOLECULES BECOME THE SMALLEST PARTS OF A COMPUND
  24. ATOMS AND COMPOUNDS :
    WITH AN ELEMENT THE ATOMS ARE THE SAME WITH A COMPOUND THA ATOMS ARE DIFFERENT
  25. AMINO ACIDS :
    • ARE COMPOUNDS CONSISTGING OF CARBON OXYGEN HYDROGEN AND NITROGEN
    • THERE ARE 22 COMMON AMINO ACIDS
    • THESE AMINO ACIDS JOIN TOGETHER IN CHAINS TO BECOME PROTEINS
  26. AMINO ACIDS :
    • HAIR IS A FORM OF PROTEIN CALLED KERATIN
    • HAIR IS MADE UP OF 97 PERCENT PROTEIN A 3 PERCENT TRACE MINERALS
  27. PEPTIDE BONDS : AMINO ACIDS ARE LINKED TOGETHER END TO END TO FORM A PEPTIDE BOND .
    • PEPTIDE BONDS ARE THE BACKBONE TO ALL PROTEIN MOLECULES
    • WHEN 2 AMINO ACIDS ARE POSISTIONED END TO END THE ACID END OF ONE AMINO ACID ATTACHES TO THE END OF ANOTHER AMINO ACID THE BONDS ARE THEN FORMED WHEN THEY JOIN
  28. PEPTIDE BONDS : POLYPEPTIDE BONDS
    THE POLY PEPTIDE BONDS ARE FORMED WHEN THOUSANDS OF AMINO ACIDS CONNECT LENGTHWISE TO FORM A CHAIN
  29. HAIR IS THE LINKING TOGETHER OF PROTEIN GROUPS :
    YOU AS A DESIGNER WILL BE ALTERING THESE LINKS
    • IT'S VERY IMPORTANT NOT TO DISTURB THE PEPTIDE BONDS:
    • IF YOU WHERE TO PUT A SODIUM HYDROXIDE RELAXER UNDER A HAIR DRYER THE COMBINATION OF ALKALINE CHEMICALS AND HEAT COULD BREAK THESE CRITICAL PEPTIDE BONDS AND DESTROY THE PROTEIN STRUCTURE
    • IF THE PROTEIN CHAINS SEPERATE INTO SMALLER FRAGMENTS OR REVERT TO GROUPS OF AMINO ACIDS THAT NO LONGER HAVE THE CHARECTORISTICS OF HAIR
  30. SIDE BONDS :
    • WHEN AMINO ACIDS COMBINE TO FORM THE KERATIN PROTEIN OF HAIR THEY TAKE ON A SPIRALING CONFIGURARTION
    • WHEN THESE LONG SPIRALING PROTEIN CHAINS ARE PLACED NEXT TO EACH OTHER THEY CAN BE LINKED TOGETHER BY FOUR SIDE BONDS
  31. SIDE BONDS :
    THE 4 MAIN BONDS
    • 1. THE HYDROGEN BOND
    • 2.THE SALT BOND
    • 3.THE DISULFIDE BOND
    • 4VAN DER WALLS FORCES
  32. THE HYDROGEN BOND
    • WORKS ON THE PRINCIPLE THAT UNLIKE CHARGES ATTRACT
    • TAKES PLACE WHEN THE HYDROGEN ATOM IN ONE MOLECULE IS ATTRACTED TO AN ATOM OA ANOTHER MOLECULE THAT HAS MANY NEGATIVE ELECTRONS
  33. THE HYDROGEN BOND :
    • HAIR HAS MANY HYDROGEN BONDS WHICH ARE INDIVIDUALLY WEAK AND CAN BE EASILY BROKEN BY WATER
    • 35 PERCENT OF HAIR'S STRENGTH IS DUE TO HYDROGEN BONDS
  34. THE SALT BOND
    • IS ALSO A RESULT OF THE ATTRACTION OF UNLIKE CHARGES
    • SALT BONDS ALSO ORGANIZE THE PROTEIN CHAINS
    • THEY ACCOUNT FOR ANOTHER 35 PERCENT OF HAIR'S RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
    • LIKE HYDROGEN BONDS ARE NOT PARTICUARLY STRONG
  35. HYDROGEN AND SALT BONDS
    • HYDROGEN AND SALT BONDS ARE WEAKENED BY WATER
    • WHEN THE HAIR IS SATURATED WITH WATER THE HYDROGEN AND SALT BONDS ARE WEAKENED LEAVING THE HAIR MORE PLIABLE
    • THE HAIR CAN THEN TAKE ON A NEW SHAPE BECASE THE NEW HYDROGEN AND SALT BONDS ARE FORMED BETWEEN THE PROTEIN CHAINS
  36. HYDROGEN AND SALT BONDS
    • THE CHANGE IN PROTEIN CHAINS ARE ONLY SET TEMPORAILY
    • EXPOSURE TO WATER WILL BREAK THE NEW BONDS SO CAN THE HUMIDITY IN THE AIR
  37. THE SULFUR SIDE BOND
    THE DISULFIDE BONDE IS THE MOST IMPORTANT TO YOUR WORK WHEN THESE SULFUR TYPE SIDE CHAINS JOIN WITH ONE OTHER SULFUR TYPE SIDE CHAIN THEY FORM THE DISULFIDE BOND
  38. THE SULFUR SIDE BOND
    • THIS BOND IS A CHEMICAL BOND THAT FORMS BETWEEN PROTEIN STRUCTURES
    • MANY CHEMICAL SERVICES DIRECTLY AFFECT THE DISULFIDE BOND BY EITHER BREAKING THE BOND OR REFORMING IT IN A NEW SHAPE
    • THIS PROCESS IS A CHEMICAL CHANGE AND CREATES LONG LASTING RESULTS
  39. VAN DER WAAL'S FORCES
    BASED ON THE THEORY THAT ATOMIC GROUPS PREFER AN ENVIORMENT WITH OTHER GROUPS THAT HAVE STRUCTURES SIMILAR TO THEIRS

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