unit 12

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unit 12
2011-12-12 14:59:34
unit 12

unit 12
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  1. what are inborn (intrinsic) refelexes?
    learned (aquired) reflex?
    refelx that is unearned, unpremediated, involuntary

    results from practce or repetition
  2. refelx arc:

    sensory neurn?
    integreation center?
    motor neuron?
    site of stimulus

    transmits affrent elec. impuses to CNS

    where the synapse takes place

    conducts effrent impulses from the integ. center to the effector organ

    muscle or gland that responds to the impuses making it contract or secrete.
  3. what is monosynaptic refelx?
    a simpe synapse between a sensory neuron and a motor neuron
  4. what is a polysynaptic refelex?
    multiple synapses with chains of interneurons
  5. what do somatic reflexes do?
    activate skeetal muscles
  6. what to autonomic (visceral) reflexes do?
    activate visceral effectors (smooth muscles,glands)
  7. why is testing of the somatic reflexes important?
    to test teh condition of the nervous system
  8. what does teh gogli tendon organ do?
    senses teh amount of tension in a muscle and it surrounding tndons
  9. what does the muscle spindle do/
    it senses the length of a muscle
  10. what are the 2 ways a muscle spindle is stretched ans excited?
    an externa force lengthens the entire muscle

    internal motor neurons stim. internal fibers to contract thus stretching the middle of teh spindle (internal stretch)
  11. what is the purpose of the stretch reflex?
    to make sure a muscle stays the certain length set by the brain
  12. in an untretched muscle the AP is?
    in anstretched musce the AP is?
    • constant
    • increased
  13. all stetch reflexes are _____________ and ___________. they invlove a single synapse and motor activity on the same side of body.
    • monosynaptic
    • ipsilateral
  14. a positive kne e jerk provides what 2 important pieces of info?
    that senory and motor connect. between muscle and spinal cord are intact

    the vigor of the response idicates the degree of excitibilaty of teh spinal cord
  15. is the gogli tendon reflex monosyapntic?
    what does it do?
    no it is ploysynaptic

    it makes the muscle reax and lengthenin response to tension
  16. what is reciprocal activation?
    mmotor neurons suppplying the contracting muscle are inhibited and antagonist muscles are activated.

    contracted muscle become relaxed and antagonst muscles contract to prevent the tears
  17. what is a flexor refex?
    started by a painful stim. causes automatic withdrawl of the threatened body part from the stim.
  18. flexor reflexes are _________ and______ .

  19. what is a crosed extensor reflex?
    important in maintaining balance offten accompanies the flexor reflex (pushing away an attacker)
  20. whst are superfiscial reflexes?
    activated by gentle stim. of teh skin
  21. what is plantar refelx?
    tests the spina cord from L7 to S2 drawing a blunt object down the sole of foot
  22. what is babiski's refelx
    abnormal refelx where big to dorsiflexes small toes fan lat.
  23. autonomic nervous system:
    what type od neuron?
    what division?
    what does it innervate?
    what does it regualte?
    2 subdiviosions?
    involuntay nervos system

    • motor neurons
    • visceral motor division

    • smooth muscle and glands
    • HR,BP,digest. urination

    sypmathetic, parasympathetic
  24. somatic motor division;
    _____motor neuronextends from the CNS to the ________ muscle. axons are _______ myeinated and conduct impulses______.
    • one
    • skeletal
    • well
    • rapidly
  25. visceral motor division:

    chain of ___ motor neurons.
  26. what are

    preganglionic (presynaptic)
    postganglionic (postsynaptic) motor neurons?

    is conduction slower or faster?
    before the synapse or before the gnaglion

    after teh synapse or after the ganglion

    slower dues to thinly or unmylenated axons
  27. sypmathetic:
    nick name?
    activated during?
    increases what?
    fight or flight

    excercise, excitement, emergencies

    blood supply to skeletal musces HR respirs.
  28. parasympathetic:

    its job is to ?
    activated during?
    • rest and digest
    • conserve energy
    • sleep and rest
    • HRrespirs., bllod supply
    • increases blod supply to organs
  29. length of preganglionic fibers:

  30. length of post ganglionic fibers:

  31. sympathetic fibers connec to __________ before the organs?
    sympathetic chain ganglia
  32. parasympathetic and sympathetic preganglionic motor neurons release ______.
  33. sympathetic postganglionic neurons release____________.
  34. parasympathetic postganglioic neurons release___________
  35. what do neuro toxins do?
    they inhibit the cells excytotic apparatus preventign the release of the neurootransmitter
  36. what is a agonist
    what is a anotagonist?
    molecule that binds to a receptor and mimics a response

    a substance that opposes the action of another.
  37. what are nictoine receptors?
    what is their effect?
    found on plates of skeletal muscles all preganglioinc neurons

    always excitation
  38. what are muscarinic receptors?
    what is there binding?
    named for a muschroom poison

    binding can be both inhibitory or stimulatory

    parasypm. excititory
  39. what are adrenegeric receptors?
    2 classes?
    • bind to noreprine or epinephrines
    • aplha beta

    both inhib. excit.
  40. adgrenic receptors:


    location an effect of binding?
    B1: mostly heart but also kindney and adipose tissue. effect:increase HR and strength stim. renin release.

    B2:lungs and symp.organs. effects:most inhibitoryndil. blood vessels relax smooth muscle

    B3:adipose tissueeffects: stim. lypolysis by fat cells
  41. adrenic receptors:


    effects of binding?
    A1: most important blood vessels, all sym. target organs except heart. effects:constricts blood vessels and visceral organ sphincters. dialtes pupil

    A2: membrane of adgrenic axon terminals. pancreas blood platelets. effects: inhibits NE release inhibits insulin secretion. promotes blood clotting
  42. nictoine:
    all ganglionic neurons in CNS

    stim of sympathetic effects: irreg HR, elevted BP

    used in smoking cessation products
  43. pilocarpine and berthanechol:
    muscarinic ACh receptors

    mimics ACh enhances PNS effects


    berthanechol use: diff. urinating.
  44. neostigmine and sarin:

    prolongd teh effect of ACH

    myathenia gravis

    sarin:used as chemical warefare
  45. albuterol and phenylephrine:
    • adgrenic receptor
    • enhances symp. activityby increasing NE


  46. propranolol:
    • adgrenic
    • decreses sym. actvity by blockin NE
    • hypertension
  47. parasymp and symp. effects:
    eye muscle:
    const. pupil

    dialate pupil

    • bulg of lense close vision,
    • flatten lense for far vision
  48. sweat glands

    arrector pili muscle
    no effect, stim sweating

    • no effect
    • contracts hair goose bumps
  49. heart muscle

    • decreases HR
    • increases HR

    • promotes voiding
    • inhibits voiding
  50. lungs

    digestive tract organs
    • constrits bronchioles
    • dialates broncioles

    • increases peristalisis
    • decreases activity constricts sphincters
  51. kidney

    blood vessels
    • no effect
    • vasocontriction decreases urine output

    • no effect
    • constricts vessels increase BP
  52. penis

    • causes erection vasodialate
    • causes ejactulation

    • vasodialation of clit
    • contract. of vagina increases secretion
  53. what channels in presynaptic neuron open in response to an action pot?
    voltage gated Ca++ channels
  54. presence of what ion inside the cell causes teh synaptic vesciles to fuse with the membrane?
  55. what is the name foe the chemicals stored in the synaptic vesicles?
  56. what do chemicals diffuse across?
    synaptic cleft
  57. where do these chemcials bind to receptors?
    postsynaptic neuron(postganglionic neuron)
  58. whatbtype of gated channels do these open?
    chemically gated
  59. 2 ways these chemicals can be removed from teh synaptic cleft?
    pumped back into the presynaptic terminal

    broken down by enzymes then taken back by teh presynaptic cell
  60. response on teh post synaptic cell depends on what 2 factors?
    which neurotransmitter is involved

    te specific receptor found on the postsynaptic cell
  61. autonomic nerves innervate whatv3 things?
    smooth muscle cardiac mucle and glands
  62. the most common neurotransmitter in teh CNS is?
  63. what drug alter synaptic transmition by blocking the action at teh postsynaptic membrane?
    curare alpha bungarotoxin in snake venom