Carbohydrates

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Author:
Yellow2
ID:
123073
Filename:
Carbohydrates
Updated:
2011-12-12 12:52:50
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Carbohydrates
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Carbohydrates
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  1. Treatment of a _____________ with an alcohol gives an acetal
    Monosac
  2. Relative to sugar, which is the sweetest carbohydrate
    Fructose
  3. The change in specific rotation that accompanies the equilibration of alpha nd beta anomers in aq sol'n is known as
    Mutarotation
  4. In Mutarotation, what are the percent of alpha and beta forms
    64% beta, 36 alpha
  5. True/False: Mutorotation is possible in a glycoside
    FALSE, you can't switch between an alpha or a beta
  6. Unbranched and linear
    Cellulose, amylose
  7. Branced
    Glycogen, amylopectin
  8. The carbohydrates coming off the lipid bilayer are
    Glycolipids
  9. The lipids inside the bilayer are
    Phospholipids
  10. The carbohydrates attached to the membrane (blood) are called
    Antigens
  11. Hydraluronic Acid
    Most abundant in embryonic tissues and specialized connective tissues, vitreous of the eye
  12. Most connective tissues are made up of collagen, in combination with a variety of
    Acidic polysaccharides
  13. A polymer of D-glucose
    Starch
  14. Starch can be separated into
    amylose and amylopectin
  15. Maltose- joined by
    alpha 1-4 glycosidic bond
  16. What are the reducing sugars
    • - Disachs: Maltose, Lactose, NOT SUCROSE
    • - Monsachs: glucose, fructose, glyceraldehyde, galactose.
  17. Lactose, joined by
    Beta 1-4 glycosidic bond
  18. Acidic pohsphoric ester protons are ionized, with a charge of
    -2
  19. D-Glucuronic Acid
    Important component of acidic polysacchardies of connective tissues, used by the body to detoxify foreign phenols
  20. Oxidation to Uronic Acids: ENZYME CATALYZED OXIDATION OF D-GLUCOSE YIELDS
    D-Glucuronic acid
  21. Enzyme catalyzed oxidation of the __ alcohol at C-_____ of a hexose yields a
    Primary, uronic acid
  22. The aldehyde group of an aldose is oxidized under _________ conditions to a ______ _____
    Basic, carboxylate anion.
  23. The product of the oxidation of an aldehydge is called an
    Aldonic acid
  24. Any carbohydrate that reacts with an oxidizing agent to form an aldonic acid is classified as a
    Reducing sugar
  25. Erythritol, D-Mannitol, Xylitol are examples of
    Alditols
  26. A cyclic acetal derived from a monosaccharride is called a
    Glycoside
  27. Reducing a carbonyl group of a monosaccharide to a ________ group would yield a product called an alditol, or sugar alcohol
    hydroxyl
  28. This mobosaccharide is a ketose
    Fructose
  29. a D-monosaccharde has the -OH on its penultimate (last stereocenter) carbon on the (right, left)
    Right
  30. H, OH, H, H left side =
    Glucose
  31. H, OH, OH, H on left side =
    galactose
  32. CH2OH, C=O, OH, H, H, CH2OH
    Fructose
  33. Cellulose, lactose, are joined by _________. Whereas MAAG amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, maltose are joined by
    • -beta 1-4 bonds
    • -alpha 1-4 (and alpha 1-6 glycogen + new bonds to amylopectine)
  34. What are the three amino sugars in nature
    D-Glucosamine, D-Mannosamine, D-Galactosamine
  35. The new carbon stereocenter from the addition of alcohol tot he aldehyde or ketone group of the monosacchardie is called the
    Anomeric Carbon
  36. Stereoisomers that differ on in the configuration of their anomeric carbon are called
    Anomers
  37. Anomers are
    Beta, Alpha
  38. How can you tel between an alpha and beta
    "Bees fly UP" _OH group is up

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