ENG Final Part 2

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  1. Irving's Rip Van Winkle
    5 items (know at least 3)
    • Considered one of the most beloved American folk tales
    • Scholars used it to discuss Irving's view of women
    • First American sci fi story
    • Connection to European fairy tales and symbols
    • Example of a "common man" story
  2. Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
    4 items (know at least 3)
    • Ichabod Crane is an anti-hero
    • Brom Van Brunt is the hero
    • People get "stuck" in the town
    • Based on a German folktale
  3. Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown symbols
    5 items (know at least 2)
    • Forest- the unknown, the psyche
    • Pink Ribbon- purity, symbol of wife
    • Wife (Faith)- faith, loss of faith in humanity
    • Staff- evil
    • The Journey- curiosity, change of outlook
  4. Hawthorne's The Birthmark Symbols and Moral
    3 symbols, 1 moral
    • Birthmark- flaw, mortality
    • Assistant- the better man, what should have been
    • Husband- scientific progress, society's concept of beauty

    Loss of birthmark=loss of humanity
  5. Hawthorne Biography
    6 items (know at least 5)
    • Born in Salem, Mass
    • Changed name (Hathorne to Hawthorne) to distance self from family
    • Secluded himself for 12 years to work on his writing
    • Published Twice Told Tales
    • Published The Scarlet Letter- people were scandalized
    • The Scarlet Letter cements his status as a major literary figure
  6. Philosophy of Romanticism
    4 items (know at least 3)
    • Nature is where we can reclaim ourselves
    • Nature is the opposite of technology, industrialism, and artificiality
    • Using your own spiritual intuition is better than relying on recieved religious doctrine
    • All people deserve equal rights
  7. Traits of Romantic Literature
    13 items (know at least 8)
    • Outgrowth of myths, legends, and fairy tales (especially German tales)
    • Literature of self awareness and psychology
    • Heavy use of symbolism
    • Theme of Nature as refuge, escape, and source of knowledge
    • Strong emotional intensity in characters
    • Pattern of punishment and reward
    • Plots focused on crisis moments
    • Focus on writing as "organic"
    • New forms of writing (new poetry, genres, and voices) are being developed
    • Beginning of literary criticism and consideration of art's purpose
    • Writers begin to live off their writing
    • Authors wanted to break away from Greek and Roman styles and prove their writing was just as good as the Europeans'
    • Developed as a backlash to Revolutionary literature- people wanted stories, not facts
  8. Romantic Literature Characters
    3 items
    • "Noble" savage
    • Alienated artist
    • Common man as hero
  9. Offshoots of American Romanticism
    3 items
    • Gothic literature
    • Transcendental literature
    • New poetry
  10. Irving Biography
    6 items (know at least 4)
    • Lived in a protective and loving home- family was well-read and widely knowledgeable
    • First generation American
    • Began by mimicking the styles of other authors, especially Shakespeare
    • Published A History of New York, a parody of history books- popular because of ad campaign
    • Sir Walter Scott suggested Irving use German folk tales for his second book, The Sketch Book
    • In later years, he wrote spanish histories and biographies, tales of the American frontier, and biographies of famous individuals
  11. Irving's Achievements
    5 items (know at least 4)
    • First American fiction writer
    • Established American satirical humor
    • Established situational humor
    • Established American Gothic style
    • Influenced Twain and Poe
  12. Hawthorne's Influences
    3 items
    • His connection to Salem Witch Trials and Puritanism
    • His interest in Transcendentalism and Romanticism
    • His concerns about the Second Great Awakening
  13. Who was influenced by the Second Great Awakening?
    1 item
  14. The Second Great Awakening steps
    4 items
    • 1. Concern over one's soul, inquiry into salvation
    • 2. Spiritual Fear, anxiety to be saved
    • 3. Conviction, or certainty that one is justly damned for one's sins and does not deserve salvation
    • 4. The moment of full repentance and surrender to God results in salvation (moment of conversion)
  15. The Second Great Awakening information
    4 items
    • Depended on an individual's spiritual conversion
    • The process focuses on the emotional experience of conversion
    • Reintroduced the Puritanical idea of sin, damnation, and salvation
    • Movement among Protestants
  16. Edgar Allan Poe Biography
    6 items (know at least 4)
    • Parents were poor actors
    • Orphaned and brought up by the Allan family, a successful family
    • Received a formal primary education
    • Went to UVA and West Point but dropped out due to lack of funds and gambling debt
    • Married Virginia Clemm, cousin (age 13)
    • Unfair criticism leaves his legacy forgotten until 1940s
  17. Poe's Influences
    3 items
    • Goethe- Organisms exist in unity, not hierarchy
    • Coleridge- Art must express the common man's experience and feelings
    • Dislike of Transcendentalism
  18. What is Gothic Literature?
    1 item
    A combination of horror and romance
  19. Features of Gothic Literature
    10 items (know at least 4)
    • Terror or primal emotions created in reader and characters
    • Secrets
    • Ghosts
    • Haunted Houses
    • Death as reality and symbol
    • Decay of bodies and buildings
    • Doubles (twins)
    • Madness/insanity
    • Villian is otherworldly or grotesque
    • Hero is romantic artist or antihero
  20. Poe's Philosophy of Composition- Basic facts
    2 items
    • Authors are not "divinely inspired"
    • Writing takes work
  21. Poe's Philosophy of Composition (Rules according to Poe)
    7 items
    • The resolution and emotional effect must be decided before the writer begins to write
    • A reader should be able to complete the work in one sitting for full emotional effect
    • The length of the work should be proportional to its emotional effect
    • Writings need to appeal to the largest audience possible
    • Writings must turn on some point
    • Variation of a format/refrain helps to build a climax
  22. Best themes and tones according to Poe's Philosophy of Composition
    3 items
    • Beauty is a universal theme
    • Sadness is a universal tone
    • Death of a beautiful woman is the best theme to have
  23. Definition of Realism
    1 item
    A 19th century movement in Europe and America in which realistic incidents and experiences serve as a mirror for society
  24. Characteristics of Realism
    7 items (know at least 5)
    • Mostly novels
    • Focus on low and middle classes
    • Focus on the common, everyday world and its experiences
    • Usually humorous
    • Meant as a way to understand different classes and to affect social change
    • Reaction to Romanticism- people wanted more realistic depictions of life
    • Has a hard edge and a grittiness
  25. Big Idea in Realism
    1 item
    The more stories read of individual, everyday life, the more clear the entire picture of society
  26. Famous Realists
    2 items
    • Mark Twain
    • Edith Wharton
  27. What is an offshoot of realism?
    1 item
    Psychological Realism (The Yellow Wallpaper)
  28. Literature of the Civil War
    6 items (know at least 3)
    • Essays
    • Speeches
    • Narratives
    • Diaries
    • Novels
    • Political Documents
  29. Post Civil War Life
    10 items (know at least 5)
    • Everyone- north and south- was experiencing trauma
    • Even greater class divides develop
    • Class divides feed into Realist literature
    • Westward expansion makes people interested in accounts of people who have moved west
    • Increase in educational institutions
    • Emphasis on becoming an educated citizen
    • Political and workplace corruption run rampant
    • Automated processes are more regulated
    • Organized mail system
    • Telephone invented
  30. Art Post-Civil war
    3 items
    • Re-interest in European art and culture
    • Strong influence of regionalism, naturalism, and realism from Europe
    • Strong interest in more outlets for women's writing
  31. What did the Civil War create movement-wise?
    1 item
    The Civil War creates a sense of dislocation and moves the country toward Realism
  32. Social and Scientific Movements Affecting Realism and Naturalism
    • Darwinism
    • Marxism (focus on socioeconomic politics and class divides)
    • Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud)
    • Newton (Scientific reasoning and natural law as a key to progress)
Card Set:
ENG Final Part 2
2011-12-12 18:46:17
ENG Final

Eng final pt 2
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