ENG Final Fall 2011complete.txt

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ENG Final Fall 2011complete.txt
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  1. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
    Composition
    2 items
    Twain wanted to go beyond the "boy's book" but was unsure how to do so

    The novel was heavily edited by both his wife and his editor
  2. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
    Reception
    3 items
    Northerners and southerners didn't like it, but midwesterners loved it

    Most read and banned book of all time

    Recognized as a cornerstone of American and Children's literature
  3. Twain and Race
    5 items
    Twain was from a slave owning family

    Twain set the book 30 years before the Civil War and published it 20 years after

    Twain was selectively racist in his work

    Twain's public persona was anti-racist

    Twain's feelings about race are unclear- Some evidence suggests he was racist, other evidence suggests he wasn't
  4. Tom Sawyer vs. Huck Finn
    5 items for each
    • Tom Sawyer
    • Boy's book
    • Adventure without real danger
    • Home-away-home pattern
    • Told in 3rd person
    • Tom is eventually civilized

    • Huck Finn
    • Young adult book
    • Real danger
    • Home-away structure
    • First person
    • Huck remains uncivilized
  5. Pattern in Young Adult Literature
    7 items
    • Child born to 2 parents
    • Child is orphaned
    • Child journeys to second home
    • Child treated harshly
    • Child triumphs
    • Child strikes harmony between what they were and what they've become
    • Child chooses to go away
  6. Waves of Feminism
    First Wave
    Key Isssues
    4 items
    • Voting rights
    • Property rights
    • Education
    • Marriage laws
  7. Waves of Feminism
    First Wave
    Key People
    4 items (Know at least 2)
    • Susan B Anthony
    • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    • Sojourner Truth
    • Margaret Fuller
  8. Waves of Feminism
    First Wave
    Major Achievements
    1 item
    19th Amendment ratified
  9. Waves of Feminism
    Second Wave
    Kickoff
    1 item
    Betty Friedman's "The Feminist Mystique"
  10. Waves of Feminism
    Second Wave
    Key Issues
    5 items
    • Reproductive rights
    • Equality for all
    • Recognition of sexism at home and in the workplace
    • Workplace rights
    • Right to self-expression
  11. Waves of Feminism
    Second Wave
    Key People
    2 items (know at least one)
    • Simone de Beauvoir
    • Gloria Steinem
  12. Waves of Feminism
    Second Wave
    Major Achievements
    3 items
    • Affirmative action
    • Title IX
    • Roe v Wade
  13. Waves of Feminism
    Third Wave
    Key Issues
    4 items
    • Third World women's issues
    • Power Feminism
    • Play with identity and sexuality
    • Right to choose work/family balance
  14. Waves of Feminism
    Third Wave
    Key People
    3 items (know at least 2)
    • Rebecca Walker
    • Bell Hooks
    • Judith Butler
  15. Waves of Feminism
    Third Wave
    Major Achievements
    2 items
    • Women allowed stronger military roles
    • Equal pay legislation
  16. Regionalism Definition
    1 item
    A literature that defines a particular place or culture
  17. Regionalism Characteristics
    7 items
    • Attention to speech patterns and dialects
    • Attention to a location's folklore, music, customs, and beliefs
    • Attention to lower-class structure and experience
    • Attention to physical descriptions of the land
    • Nostalgic nature in writing
    • The character as representative of the region
    • The most popular regional literature is Southern literature
  18. Mark Twain- Biography
    6 items
    • Born in Florida during Halley's Comet
    • Steamboat pilot
    • "Mark Twain" means the deepest, safest part of the river
    • Wife was from a wealthy abolitionist family
    • Dies during Halley's comet
    • First modern American writer
  19. Characteristics of Naturalism
    6 items
    • Non-judgmental narrator with no emotional interplay
    • Examples of how the environment shapes events and individuals
    • Fate, circumstance, and accidents shape lives
    • No moral patterns
    • Humans are animals driven by logical desire
    • Attention to social Darwinism
  20. How the Civil War pushed Naturalism forward
    3 items
    • There is no moral pattern in hand-to-hand combat
    • The war is seen as animalistic
    • It stripped away Romantic innocence
  21. Emile Zola
    2 items
    • First writer of Naturalism
    • American Naturalists were influenced by his work
  22. Jack London Biography
    4 items
    • Lived in extreme poverty with little education
    • Endured hard physical labor to support his family
    • The experiences he wrote about in his book stemmed directly from life experience
    • Wrote Call of the Wild and unknowingly sold the rights for significantly less than they were worth
  23. Jack London's Influences
    2 items
    • Herbert Spencer and Synthetic Philosophy (evolution works on a social level)
    • Nietzsche and "super man" (if man casts off bad habits eventually over generations the race will be better for it)
  24. London's Literary Contributions
    3 items
    • Plain Style (no ornamental detail, plot driven)
    • Portrayal of nature as stark, demanding, and unyielding
    • Portrayal of socialism in action
  25. Stephen Crane Biography
    4 items
    • From a wealthy family with a strict upbringing
    • Wrote "Maggie: A Girl of the Streets"
    • Wrote "Red Badge of Courage"- an impressionist book
    • Wrote "Occurence at Owl Creek Bridge"
  26. Charlotte Perkins Gilman Biography
    3 items
    • Lived in poverty after father abandoned family
    • Given a rest cure after birth of daughter (reflected in The Yellow Wallpaper)
    • Developed breast cancer and committed suicide by chloroform
  27. Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Literary Contributions
    3 items
    • World renowned lecturer on women's and social issues
    • Wrote first utopian feminist novel (Herland)
    • Wrote out of frustration that women were enslaved by their domestic roles
  28. Characteristics of Realism
    7 items (know at least 5)
    • Mostly novels
    • Focus on low to middle class
    • Focus on common, everyday world and its experiences
    • Usually humorous
    • Meant as a way to understand different classes and affect social change
    • Reaction to Romanticism
    • Hard edge, gritty
  29. Big Idea in Realism
    1 item
    The more stories read of individual, everyday life, the more clear the entire picture of society
  30. Famous Realists
    3 items
    • Mark Twain
    • Edith Wharton
    • Charles Dickens
  31. Offshoot of realism
    1 item
    Psychological Realism
  32. Literature of the Civil War
    6 items (know at least 3)
    • Essays
    • Speeches
    • Narratives
    • Diaries
    • Novels
    • Political Documents
  33. Post Civil War Life
    8 items (know at least 5)
    • Everyone was experiencing trauma- north AND south
    • Greater class divides develop, which feed into realist literature
    • Increase in educational institutions
    • Emphasis on becoming educated
    • Automated processes are more regulated
    • Organized mail system
    • Moves the country toward realism
    • Strong influence of regionalism, naturalism, and realism coming from Europe
  34. Post Civil War interests
    1 item
    Strong interest in more outlets for women's writing
  35. Social and Scientific Movements Affecting Realism and Naturalism
    4 items
    • Darwinism
    • Marxism- Focus on socioeconomic politics and class divides
    • Psychoanalytic Theory- Freud
    • Newton- Scientific reasoning and Natural Law
  36. Ambrose Bierce Biography
    4 items
    • Little formal schooling
    • Served in Union Army and was wounded
    • Two of his children died, and his experiences made him bitter, dark, and depressive
    • Wrote "An Occurence at Owl Creek Bridge"
  37. Bierce's Contributions to Literature
    3 items
    • Strong identification with determinism- an individual can direct his own life
    • Strong attachment to sardonic wit in writing
    • Use of stark imagery
  38. Frank Norris Biography
    3 items
    • Educated in elite schools
    • Highly influenced by Emile Zola
    • His career as a reporter influenced him to write realistic fiction
  39. Norris' Contribution to Literature
    3 items
    • Wheat Epic- 3 part epic (he never finished)
    • Influenced Jack London
    • Created a single issue with multiple voices
  40. American Romanticism
    2 items
    • Movement away from methods and forms to art for art's sake
    • Poems and stories of imagination and invention
  41. Branches of American Romanticism
    3 items
    • Gothic Literature
    • Transcendentalism
    • New Poetry
  42. Literature of the Civil War
    3 items
    • Witness Literature
    • Trauma Literature
    • Movement away from Romantic Fiction
  43. Harriet Beecher Stowe Biography
    5 items
    • Well educated and from a wealthy family
    • Strongly abolitionist family
    • Learned to debate worldly topics at the dinner table
    • Wrote to make money, ended up with successful career
    • Helped edit Huck Finn for Mark Twain
    • Uncle Tom
    • Dred
  44. Uncle Tom's Cabin
    4 items
    • Stowe never went to the south, just met with free slaves
    • Instant best seller
    • Sentimental Novel (intensely and overly dramatic)
    • Changed the tide of the Civil War
  45. Slave Narrative Patterns
    7 items
    • Linear stories with a look-back approach
    • Introduction showing the contrast between slaves and slave owning family
    • Slave is given help by one person in family-usually woman of the house and taught to read and write
    • Period of extreme abuse that forces the slave to escape
    • Abuse chronicled in vivid detail
    • Writer establishes biblical allusions and religious elements to show experiences as a relatable tale and to help them understand their abuse
    • Writer finds freedom up north
  46. Reasons for Slave Narratives
    4 items
    • They show how oppression works
    • They are meant to suggest one experience out of thousands
    • They show slaves can be educated
    • They helped abolitionists to support their cause
  47. Harriet Ann Jacobs' Biography
    7 items
    • Slave
    • Mistress of her owner family teaches her how to read and write (she is not proficient)
    • Owner begins to make sexual advances toward her and tries to sexually abuse her
    • Has a child with another man to avoid bearing her owner's child
    • Owner threatens to make her kids slaves so she escapes
    • Lydia Child frees her and helps her write and edit her narrative
    • Narrative is HEAVILY edited
  48. Why Harriet Ann Jacobs' Narrative was important
    2 items
    • Has a spotlight on sexual abuse in slavery and the abuse of white women toward female slaves
    • It crosses gender and class lines
    • (It deals with subjects that had not been detailed in other narratives)
  49. Frederick Douglass' Biography
    8 items (know at least 5)
    • Born to a slave mother and white father
    • Sent to a carpenter who teaches him to read and write
    • Sent back to his family and works under Thomas Covey, an uncommonly mean "Slave breaker"
    • When Douglass returns from running away the first time, Covey beats him mercilessly- but at the last moment Douglass fights back and threatens Covey's life
    • Covey didn't want to ruin his reputation by showing he couldn't control his slaves, so Douglass was not physically reprimanded
    • Douglass escapes to Massachusetts and talks about slavery there
    • He is a popular speaker
    • He believed in freedom from slavery, but not at the hands of a war between the states
  50. Changes made to Emily Dickinson's poems post-mortem
    4 items (know at least 3)
    • Poems were given titles
    • Dashes were changed to fixed punctuation
    • Caps are changed
    • Poems arranged by theme
  51. Themes in Dickinson's work
    8 items (know at least 4)
    • Desire
    • Depravation
    • Self vs God
    • God vs Organized religion
    • Seeing/sight because of eyesight issues)
    • Physical vs spiritual death
    • Use of opposites to establish points and ideas
    • Playing with Transcendentalist ideas
  52. Dickinson's Legacy
    5 items (Know at least 3)
    • Influenced Beat Poets
    • Considered a "woman's poet"
    • Considered a "child's poet"
    • Allusions to myths, bible, and Shakespeare
    • Uses dashes to continue conversation and capitalization to question importance
  53. Walt Whitman
    9 items (know at least 7)
    • Born to a working class family
    • Formal schooling ended at age 11
    • Began an apprenticeship where he worked with Mark Twain
    • Published "temperance" fiction
    • Was influenced by a speech Emerson gave
    • Published Leaves of Grass, which critics were disturbed by because of the sexual content
    • Wrote political poetry for a while, including Civil War Poems (like When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd
    • Kept adding all his poems to one book- Leaves of Grass
  54. Whitman's Poetic Formula
    2 items
    • First line announces subject, next line engages subject
    • Father of free verse
  55. Whitman's Goal in Leaves of Grass
    1 item
    To create a comprehensive self-portrait that became representative of his nation
  56. Whitman's Legacy
    4 items
    • Considered the founder of free verse poetry
    • Considered the "people's poet"
    • Strongly influenced the Beat Generation
    • Forerunner to realism
  57. Main Beliefs in Transcendentalism
    10 items (know at least 5)
    • One must live and work close to nature
    • One must have intellectual companions and conversations
    • One's relationship to God is established by oneself, not by a church
    • Humans are inherently divine
    • One can lose the connection with the divine if you don't think for oneself and instead follow the herd
    • Everyone needs equal rights to protect self-reliance
    • Humans can transcend the daily world by living justly, listening to intuition, and paying attention to natural law
    • Disdain for governmental laws
    • Cultivating intuition means having a connection with the "universal being" or "oversoul" (a higher power)
    • Going into nature often and relying on oneself cultivates intuition
  58. Ralph Waldo Emerson's biography
    6 items (know at least 5)
    • Married a very wealthy woman- inherited a massive fortune when she died
    • Resigned from religious post over conflicts over communion and public prayer
    • Adopted the ideas of European philosophers as well as Plato and Kant
    • Considered The Father of American Transcendentalism
    • Banned from Harvard after a speech denouncing Jesus
    • Son's death causes him to move away from Transcendentalism
  59. Why was Emerson considered the Father of American Transcendentalism?
    1 item
    While his writing was confusing to many writers and intellectuals during his lifetime (he kept changing what he was saying), it was his writing and presence that was influential to people
  60. Basic Ideas in Nature
    9 items (know at least 6)
    • We are part of the "Great Chain of Being"
    • We can see the "big picture"
    • We are connected to everything and everyone
    • There is a Universal being that can be glimpsed but NOT KNOWN
    • Nature restores us and is the perfect inspiration for art
    • Language is not arbitrary
    • No need for books- learn it in nature
    • Understand and form your own basic laws of reason by observation of the natural world
    • Technology changes and distances our relationship with nature
  61. Basic ideas in Self-Reliance
    4 items (know at least 3)
    • Man must rely on individual/independent thought and intuition
    • Intuition is gained from an "oversoul"
    • To gain intuition, we must stop being lazy, attached to wealth, or agreeable
    • Society does not actually advance- with every "advancement," we lose knowledge
  62. Basic Ideas in American Scholar
    8 items (know at least 5)
    • One must remove oneself from European inellectualism
    • A scholar must learn through nature (by himself) to understand laws, rules, origins, and classification
    • Books are dangerous in that they are passive examples of old ideas
    • Scholars need action and trust in original ideas
    • Each age finds its own truths
    • A scholar must be a laborer to create rhythm in mind and body
    • A scholar must question ideas and be independent in views and teaching
    • A scholar learns through nature, not books
  63. Henry David Thoreau Biography
    6 items
    • From a middle class family
    • Attended Harvard
    • Attempted to open a progressive school but failed
    • Lived with and worked for Emerson
    • Emerson taught him about Transcendentalism
    • Lived at Walden pond and wrote Walden
  64. Basic Ideas in Civil Disobedience
    6 items
    • Don't follow laws blindly
    • The government doesn't do great things, individuals do
    • The government reflects only the strongest views, not necessarily the best
    • People who follow laws blindly are the worst offenders of civilization
    • If you can't change something, don't participate
    • The law punishes the body, not the soul
  65. Basic Ideas of Walden
    4 items (know at least 3)
    • Man can get caught in a cycle of needing and wanting
    • Man should live without debt and without obligations to others
    • The best way to break the cycle is to simplify life to basic necessities and practices
    • We should all live as a microcosm of what could be
  66. Emily Dickinson Biography
    5 items
    • Family was well educated, wealthy, and religious
    • Mother wasn't affectionate
    • By age 35 she wore only white and would not leave the house
    • Eventually she wouldn't leave the 2nd floor
    • These were linked to eyesight problems and a desire to be distanced from the community
  67. Irving's Rip Van Winkle
    5 items (know at least 3)
    • Considered one of the most beloved American folk tales
    • Scholars used it to discuss Irving's view of women
    • First American sci fi story
    • Connection to European fairy tales and symbols
    • Example of a "common man" story
  68. Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
    4 items (know at least 3)
    • Ichabod Crane is an anti-hero
    • Brom Van Brunt is the hero
    • People get "stuck" in the town
    • Based on a German folktale
  69. Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown symbols
    5 items (know at least 2)
    • Forest- the unknown, the psyche
    • Pink Ribbon- purity, symbol of wife
    • Wife (Faith)- faith, loss of faith in humanity
    • Staff- evil
    • The Journey- curiosity, change of outlook
  70. Hawthorne's The Birthmark Symbols and Moral
    3 symbols, 1 moral
    • Birthmark- flaw, mortality
    • Assistant- the better man, what should have been
    • Husband- scientific progress, society's concept of beauty

    Loss of birthmark=loss of humanity
  71. Hawthorne Biography
    6 items (know at least 5)
    • Born in Salem, Mass
    • Changed name (Hathorne to Hawthorne) to distance self from family
    • Secluded himself for 12 years to work on his writing
    • Published Twice Told Tales
    • Published The Scarlet Letter- people were scandalized
    • The Scarlet Letter cements his status as a major literary figure
  72. Philosophy of Romanticism
    4 items (know at least 3)
    • Nature is where we can reclaim ourselves
    • Nature is the opposite of technology, industrialism, and artificiality
    • Using your own spiritual intuition is better than relying on recieved religious doctrine
    • All people deserve equal rights
  73. Traits of Romantic Literature
    13 items (know at least 8)
    • Outgrowth of myths, legends, and fairy tales (especially German tales)
    • Literature of self awareness and psychology
    • Heavy use of symbolism
    • Theme of Nature as refuge, escape, and source of knowledge
    • Strong emotional intensity in characters
    • Pattern of punishment and reward
    • Plots focused on crisis moments
    • Focus on writing as "organic"
    • New forms of writing (new poetry, genres, and voices) are being developed
    • Beginning of literary criticism and consideration of art's purpose
    • Writers begin to live off their writing
    • Authors wanted to break away from Greek and Roman styles and prove their writing was just as good as the Europeans'
    • Developed as a backlash to Revolutionary literature- people wanted stories, not facts
  74. Romantic Literature Characters
    3 items
    • "Noble" savage
    • Alienated artist
    • Common man as hero
  75. Offshoots of American Romanticism
    3 items
    • Gothic literature
    • Transcendental literature
    • New poetry
  76. Irving Biography
    6 items (know at least 4)
    • Lived in a protective and loving home- family was well-read and widely knowledgeable
    • First generation American
    • Began by mimicking the styles of other authors, especially Shakespeare
    • Published A History of New York, a parody of history books- popular because of ad campaign
    • Sir Walter Scott suggested Irving use German folk tales for his second book, The Sketch Book
    • In later years, he wrote spanish histories and biographies, tales of the American frontier, and biographies of famous individuals
  77. Irving's Achievements
    5 items (know at least 4)
    • First American fiction writer
    • Established American satirical humor
    • Established situational humor
    • Established American Gothic style
    • Influenced Twain and Poe
  78. Hawthorne's Influences
    3 items
    • His connection to Salem Witch Trials and Puritanism
    • His interest in Transcendentalism and Romanticism
    • His concerns about the Second Great Awakening
  79. Who was influenced by the Second Great Awakening?
    1 item
    Hawthorne
  80. The Second Great Awakening steps
    4 items
    • 1. Concern over one's soul, inquiry into salvation
    • 2. Spiritual Fear, anxiety to be saved
    • 3. Conviction, or certainty that one is justly damned for one's sins and does not deserve salvation
    • 4. The moment of full repentance and surrender to God results in salvation (moment of conversion)
  81. The Second Great Awakening information
    4 items
    • Depended on an individual's spiritual conversion
    • The process focuses on the emotional experience of conversion
    • Reintroduced the Puritanical idea of sin, damnation, and salvation
    • Movement among Protestants
  82. Edgar Allan Poe Biography
    6 items (know at least 4)
    • Parents were poor actors
    • Orphaned and brought up by the Allan family, a successful family
    • Received a formal primary education
    • Went to UVA and West Point but dropped out due to lack of funds and gambling debt
    • Married Virginia Clemm, cousin (age 13)
    • Unfair criticism leaves his legacy forgotten until 1940s
  83. Poe's Influences
    3 items
    • Goethe- Organisms exist in unity, not hierarchy
    • Coleridge- Art must express the common man's experience and feelings
    • Dislike of Transcendentalism
  84. What is Gothic Literature?
    1 item
    A combination of horror and romance
  85. Features of Gothic Literature
    10 items (know at least 4)
    • Terror or primal emotions created in reader and characters
    • Secrets
    • Ghosts
    • Haunted Houses
    • Death as reality and symbol
    • Decay of bodies and buildings
    • Doubles (twins)
    • Madness/insanity
    • Villian is otherworldly or grotesque
    • Hero is romantic artist or antihero
  86. Poe's Philosophy of Composition- Basic facts
    2 items
    • Authors are not "divinely inspired"
    • Writing takes work
  87. Poe's Philosophy of Composition (Rules according to Poe)
    7 items
    • The resolution and emotional effect must be decided before the writer begins to write
    • A reader should be able to complete the work in one sitting for full emotional effect
    • The length of the work should be proportional to its emotional effect
    • Writings need to appeal to the largest audience possible
    • Writings must turn on some point
    • Variation of a format/refrain helps to build a climax
  88. Best themes and tones according to Poe's Philosophy of Composition
    3 items
    • Beauty is a universal theme
    • Sadness is a universal tone
    • Death of a beautiful woman is the best theme to have

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