BIOL 223 Final-Deck 5

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  1. List the three elements of a lever.
    • load
    • applied force
    • fulcrum
  2. When the load and applied force are on opposite sides of the fulcrum you have a:
    1st class lever
  3. When the load is between the applied force and the fulcrum, such as with a wheel barrow, you have a:
    2nd class lever
  4. The elbow is an example of which type of lever?
    3rd class - applied force between fulcrum (elbow) and load (hand)
  5. What structure is surrounded by the perimysium?
    a muscle fascicle
  6. The entire muscle, such as the biceps brachii, is surrounded by the:
  7. An individual muscle fiber (cell) is surrounded by the:
  8. What is the main function of sarcoplasmic reticulum?
    to store Ca2+
  9. Which structure in a muscle cell runs perpendicular to the sarcolemma and allows the entire fiber to depolarize?
    transverse tubules
  10. Define sarcomere.
    repeating areas of actin and myosin filaments
  11. The point of attachment for actin filaments that also serves as the borders of each sarcomere is the:
    Z line
  12. The point of attachement for thick filaments which is the center of a sarcomere is the:
    M line
  13. The part of the sarcomere where thin filaments overlap thick filaments is known as the:
    zone of overlap
  14. Which part of the sarcomere only has thin filaments?
    the I band
  15. The A band encompasses the entire length of _______ filaments in the sarcomere.
    myosin (thick) filaments
  16. Name the part of the sarcomere that surrounds the M line and only contains thick filaments.
    H band
  17. What type of ion channel is on the synaptic knob of the neuromuscular junction?
  18. What type of ion channel is on the muscle (post-synaptic) tissue of the neuromuscular junction?
  19. How is an isometric contraction different from an isotonic contraction?
    an isometric contraction has no change in length while an isotonic contraction has a change in length
  20. What type of information is carried by the afferent nervous system?
    sensory information
  21. What type of information is carried by the efferent nervous system?
    motor commands
  22. Will neurons performing continuous propagation have myeline sheaths?
    no, they will not
  23. List the four steps of continuous propagation.
    • axon hillock depolarizes
    • sodium ions diffuse along inside of the axon
    • voltage-gated channels open and next segment depolarizes
    • repeat process down the axon
  24. List the four steps of saltatory propagation.
    • intial segment depolarizes
    • sodium ions diffuse to node 1
    • voltage channels open and depolarize node 1
    • process repeat at node 2
  25. List the three meningeal layers of the brain.
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  26. What occurs in the dural sinus?
    blood from the brain is returned to circulation
  27. What occurs in the arachnoid space?
    circulation of spinal fluid
  28. What type of neurons travel through the dorsal root?
    sensory neurons
  29. What type of neurons travel through the ventral root?
    motor neurons
  30. The dorsal root and ventral root combine to form the:
    spinal nerve
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BIOL 223 Final-Deck 5

Study Cards for Final Exam BIOL 223 CSN
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