HA 100 Terms

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amberd27
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HA 100 Terms
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2011-12-12 15:26:34
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Western art history art terms
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  1. limewood
    wood from a linden tree; used by many German sculptors, namely, Riemenschneider's Altarpiece of the Holy Blood
  2. oil painting
    process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil
  3. St Sebastian
    Christian saint and martyr, who is said to have been killed during the Roman emperor Diocletian's persecution of Christians
  4. St Anthony
    was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order. Noted by his contemporaries for his forceful preaching and expert knowledge of Scripture, he was declared a saint almost immediately after his death and proclaimed a Doctor of the Church
  5. Protestant Reformation
    was a 16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants who objected to ("protested") the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, leading to the creation of new national Protestant churches
  6. Martin Luther
    was a German priest, professor of theology and iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. Wrote 95 Theses, which Pope asked him to retract; he refused, resutling in his excommunication and condemnation as an outlaw by the Emperor. Luther taught that salvation is not earned by good deeds but received only as a free gift of God's grace through faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin
  7. 95 Theses
    on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences. Widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. Written by Martin Luther
  8. engraving
    The process or art of cutting or carving a design on a hard surface, esp. so as to make a print
  9. burin
    a pointed chisel tool used for engraving
  10. Erasmus
    was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, and a theologian. "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists." he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament. These raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation.
  11. humanism
    philosophy, outlook, or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters.
  12. centering
    A temporary, usually wooden framework on which an arch, vault, or dome is supported during construction.
  13. chiaroscuro
    in art is "an Italian term which literally means 'light-dark'. In paintings the description refers to clear tonal contrasts which are often used to suggest the volume and modelling of the subjects depicted. Further specialized uses include chiaroscuro woodcut, for coloured woodcuts printed with different blocks, each using a different coloured ink
  14. Medici
    was a political dynasty, banking family and later royal house. The Medici produced four Popes of the Catholic Church. Their wealth and influence initially derived from the textile trade guided by the guild of the Arte della Lana. The Medici Bank was one of the most prosperous and most respected institutions in Europe; developed double entry bookkeping for tracking credits and debits
  15. palazzo
    Italian for "palace" a grand building that is often the headquarters of a family
  16. piano nobile
    (Italian, "noble floor" or "noble level") is the principal floor of a large house, usually built in one of the styles of classical renaissance architecture. This floor contains the principal reception and bedrooms of the house.
  17. lost wax bronze casting
    process by which a metal sculpture is cast from an artists wax sclupting.
  18. Florence Cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore)
    the cathedral church of Florence, Italy. The Duomo, as it is ordinarily called, was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style to the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and completed structurally in 1436 with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi.
  19. Cosimo de'Medici
    was the first of the Medici political dynasty
  20. linear persepective
    In linear perspective parallel lines that recede into the distance appear to get closer together or converge at a common point. Helps create sense of depth for angularity, size, and 3D
  21. orthogonal
    perpendicular; intersecting at a 90 degree angle
  22. fresco
    any of several related mural painting types, executed on plaster on walls or ceilings; derives from the Latin word for "fresh"; popular during Renaissance
  23. Council of Trent
    was the 16th-century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It is considered to be one of the Church's most important councils.
  24. Counter-Reformation
    Response to Protestant Reformation; period of Catholic revival during the Council of Trent, ending at the close fo the Thrity Years War
  25. Federico Cornaro
    was an Italian Catholic Cardinal and Patriarch of Venice
  26. bel composto
    • Bel Composto was an artistic theory developed by Bernini during the Baroque. The theory involved unifying the arts of painting, sculpting, and architecture. One example of Bernini's use of Bel Composto is the
    • Sant'Andrea al Quirinale, where Bernini embedded sculptures into the church's architecture
  27. transverberation
    "to beat or strike through" alternative name for St Theresa in Ecstasy-- Transverberation of Saint Teresa
  28. tenebrism
    is a style of painting using very pronounced chiaroscuro, where there are violent contrasts of light and dark, and darkness becomes a dominating feature of the image. Caravaggio is most notable for using tenebrism, in fact, some people call it Caravaggism instead
  29. allegory
    • form of extended metaphor, in which objects, persons,
    • and actions in a narrative, are equated with the meanings that lie outside the narrative itself
  30. giornata
    Giornata is an art term, originating from an Italian word which means "a day's work." The term is used in Buon fresco mural painting and describes how much painting can be done in a single day of painting.
  31. Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’Medici
    nicknamed the Popolano, was an Italian banker and politician; may have comissioned some of Botticelli's works
  32. classicism
    refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. Ancient Greek and Roman sources and an emphasis on society. It was particularly expressed in the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason.
  33. Plato
    was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens. Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science
  34. Aristotle
    Philosopher
  35. Pope Julius II
    nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope"; His papacy was marked by an active foreign policy, ambitious building projects, and patronage for the arts. laid the foundation stone of the new St. Peter's Basilica, and he was a friend and patron of Bramante, Raphael, and Michelangelo. Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel for Julius.
  36. Vitruvius
    was a Roman writer, architect and engineer, active in the 1st century BC. He is best known as the author of the multi-volume work De Architectura, which influence da Vinci and Michelangelo
  37. etching
    is the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal, used for printmaking
  38. drypoint
    a printmaking technique of the intaglio family, in which an image is incised into a plate (or "matrix") with a hard-pointed "needle" of sharp metal or diamond point; uses patterns of lines and burrs
  39. kloveniers
    civic militia guards
  40. vanitas
    • type of symbolic work of art especially associated with Northern European still life painting in Flanders and the Netherlands. Common vanitas symbols include skulls, which are a reminder of the certainty of death; rotten fruit, which symbolizes decay like ageing;
    • bubbles, which symbolize the brevity of life and suddenness of death; smoke, watches, and hourglasses, which symbolize the brevity of life; and musical instruments, which symbolize brevity and the ephemeral
    • nature of life. Fruit, flowers and butterflies can be interpreted in thesame way, and a peeled lemon, as well as accompanying seafood was, like life, attractive to look at, but bitter to taste
  41. genre painting
    painting of scenes from everyday life, of ordinary people in work or recreation, depicted in a generally realistic manner
  42. still life painting
    is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural (food, flowers, plants, rocks, or shells) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, and so on).
  43. Absolutism
    A political theory holding that all power should be vested in one ruler or other authority
  44. Divine Right of Kings
    a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving his right to rule directly from the will of God.
  45. Madame du Barry
    courtesan and official mistress of Louis XV; painted by Élisabeth-Louise Vigée Le Brun
  46. French Revolution
    a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a major impact on France and indeed all of Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years. French society underwent an epic transformation as feudal, aristocratic and religious privileges evaporated under a sustained assault from radical left-wing political groups, masses on the streets, and peasants in the countryside
  47. Orientalism
    a term used especially in art for the imitation or depiction of aspects of Eastern cultures in the West by writers, designers and artists. Grand Oadlisque by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres is a good example
  48. Coriard and Sevigny
    survivors of the Medusa who recounted the tale of the shipwreck
  49. picturesque
    visually charming or quaint, as if resembling or suitable for a painting
  50. sublime
    Of such excellence, grandeur, or beauty as to inspire great admiration or awe
  51. Zong slave ship
    mass-killing of African slaves that took place on November 29th, 1781, on the Zong, a British slave ship; the subject of JMW Turner's The Slave Ship
  52. lithography
    method for printing using a stone (lithographic limestone) or a metal plate with a completely smooth surface; Degas used this method for his works
  53. Curtain wall
    an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, but merely keep out the weather. Found on Bauhaus
  54. daguerrotype
    was the first commercially successful photographic process. Developed by Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre. The surface of a daguerreotype is like a mirror, with the image made directly on the silvered surface; it is very fragile and can be rubbed off with a finger. Took time so images were often still figures
  55. calotype
    an early photographic process introduced in 1841 by William Henry Fox Talbot, using paper coated with silver iodide. Less popular that daguerrotypes
  56. Haussmannization
    The pulling down and building up anew of streets and cities, as Baron Haussmann remodelled Paris. Creative destruction
  57. en plen air
    in the open air AKA outdoors
  58. flaneur
    "stroller" "lounger" "loiterer"
  59. Japonisme
    • Japanese influence on art; seen in Henri
    • de Toulouse-Lautrec. Jane Avril.
  60. Pointilism
    applying color in tiny dots and dashes to create an image; technique created by Seurat
  61. Divisionism
    was the characteristic style in Neo-Impressionist painting defined by the separation of colors into individual dots or patches which interacted optically
  62. Chevrel
    developed theory of simultaneous contrast, contrasting colors might be placed in close proximity in Divisionism
  63. Expressionism
    was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. Expressionist artists sought to express meaning or emotional experience rather than physical reality.

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