KIN 169

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  1. Def and characteristics of ACUTE STRESS
    • short term
    • immediate and intermediate
    • starts with cerebral arousal
    • hypothalamus stimulates SNS
  2. Def and characteristics of CHRONIC STRESS
    • *PROLONGED and UNABATED (w/o intervention)
    • ACTH axis - lowers immune system
    • Thyroxin axis - anxiety symptoms
    • Vasopressin axis - raises blood pressure / increase h20 retention
  3. What are T-cells?
    T cells are like soldiers who search out and destroy the targeted invaders.

    T cell are also known as T lymphocytes. The "T" stands for "thymus" -- the organ in which these cells mature
  4. What are B-cells?
    The principal functions of B cells are to make antibodies against antigens, perform the role of antigen-presenting cells and eventually develop into memory B cells after activiation by antigent interaction

    play a large role in the humoral immune response
  5. What are Lymphocytes?
    Type of white blood cell in vertebrate immune system

    • larger = granular lymphocytes (i.e. "natural killer cells")
    • major role in defending the host from both tumors and virus infections

    small = T cells and B cells
  6. Immediate stress
    Physiological Axis
    Physio Effects
    Ex: slamming on breaks for a dog in the street

    • primarily nerves
    • begins with cerebral arousal →
    • activates hypothalamus →
    • stimulates SNS (process called direct organ intervention) →
    • releases epinephrine and norepinephrine (aka adrenaline)

    Causes central dialation and Peripheral constriction
  7. Intermediate Stress
    Physiological Axis
    Physio Effects
    Ex: rushing to get to a very important meeting on time

    • nerves AND hormones/endocrine
    • Cerebral arousal →
    • activates hypothalamus →
    • stimulates SNS →
    • releases acetycholine →
    • stimulates adrenal medula →
    • releases epinepherine and norepephrine
    • (lasts 10x longer)

    central dialation and peripherial vasoconstriction
  8. ACTH axis
    • cerebral arousal→
    • stimulates the hypothalamus→
    • releases CRF→
    • activates the pituitary glands
    • (chemophobes make and store ACTH)
    • releases ACTH→
    • stimulates the adrenal cortex→
    • releases mineralo corticoids AND glucocorticoids
  9. Where do glucocorticoids come from?
    What do they do?
    What is the main one?
    From the adrenal cortex (ACTH axis)

    Main gluco = CORTISOL

    • used to make fuel through the process of GLUCONEOGENESIS during chronic stress by breaking down fat and proteins
    • *amino acids
    • *vitamins/minerals
    • *lipolytic enzymes
    • *WBCs
    • antibodies

    • ↑ RBCs which ↑ BP
    • ( in blood VISCOCITY.. not volume)
  10. Where do mineralo corticoids come from?
    What do they do?
    What is the main one?
    From the adrenal cortex (ACTH axis)

    Main mineralo = ALDOSTERONE

    • ↑ Na retention =
    • h20 retention =
    • ↑ plasma volume =
    • ↑ BP
  11. Thyroxine Axis
    • Cerebral arousal →
    • activates the hypothalamus →
    • releases TRF→
    • stimulates the pituitary gland
    • (basophils)
    • releases thyrotrophic hormone→
    • stimulates the thyroid→
    • releases thyroxine
  12. What does thyroxine do?
    • ↑ metabolic rate
    • ↑resperation
    • ↑cardiac acceleration

    • ↓micocardiac strength
    • ↑chance of cardiac failure
    • ↑anxiety symptoms
    • ↑core body temp
    • ↑muscle tremors
  13. Vasopressin axis (ADH)
    • hypothalamus→
    • releases vasopressin →
    • stimulates pituitary gland →
    • pituicytes store and release vasopressin/ADH
  14. What does vasopressin do?
    • causes vasocontriction
    • ↑ renal permeability to h20
    • ↑ in blood pressure
  15. which two hormones result in similar physiology responses from the body?
    vasopressin and aldosterone because they both result in ↑BP
  16. How does "in vivo" relate to systematic desensitization?
    "in vivo" in encountering a stressor in REAL LIFE
  17. How does "in vitro" relate to systematic desensitization?
    In vitro is imagining a stressor and using imagery to explore how the stressor can be approached.
  18. What does POLYPHASIC mean/refer to?
    • - to multitask
    • -type A personalities tend to be polyphasic
  19. What are catecholamines?
    • "fight-or-flight" hormones released by
    • the adrenal glands in response to stress

    epinephrine and norepinepherine released by the adrenal medulla
  20. characteristics of autogenic training
    • -relaxation techniquew
    • -warm sensations from peripheral vasodilation
    • - daily practice of sessions that last around 15 minutes, usually in the morning, at lunch time, and in the evening.
    • -practitioner will repeat a set of visualisations that induce a state of relaxation
    • EX: "my right arm is heavy""my arms and legs are heavy and warm"
    • Alfred Schultz famous for AT
  21. Parasympathetic Response is...
    • the relaxation response
    • responsible for stimulation of "rest-and-digest" activities that occur when the body is at rest
  22. What is Existential Freedom?
    • emphasis on the individual and how one relates to the world
    • Human beings are free to choose what to make of themselves
    • responsible in choosing their own course of action; they are limited in their finite world, yet, they can live their own meaning and interpretation
  23. What is Existential Angst?
    subtle, background anxiety experienced as human beings when we explore questions such as "what is my purpose?" "how can i make a difference?" "is there life after death?"
  24. What is Existential Courage?
    Willingness to face agony and betrayal with courage and still say “yes to life”

    Holding on to hurt, anger, pain is detrimental to health (physiologically, emotionally)
  25. What is Existential Dysfunction?
    • is putting so much time achieving goals and
    • “things” that we fail to take time for self-reflection; there is no mobility on the self-world continuum – humans need movement related to this scale

  26. What is cognitive restructuring?
    procedure for modifying erroneous, self-imposed roles
  27. What is Progressive Neuromuscular Relaxation (PR)?
    What is it used for?
    Who is famous for applying?
    technique for reducing anxiety

    Tension intentionally applied to region, then relax muscles

    • Sometimes there are tiny amounts of stress/contraction of muscles and creating more
    • tension followed by releasing the tension promotes relaxation

    *Edmund Jacobs
  28. Type A
    • “hurry sickness”
    • Time urgency
    • Very competitive
    • Perfectionist
    • Egocentric (due to goal oriented trait)
    • “Embraces existencial dysfunction”
    • Put emphasison “product” over “process”
    • Experience more anger/hostility
    • Impatient
    • Polyphasic/Multitasking
    • Quantitative
  29. Type B
    • ambitious and competitive BUT NOT OBESSIVE
    • equal opportunity on BOTH THE process
    • and product
    • more time on a daily or weekly basis to focus on progressive relaxation
    • typically a slower/more moderate pace of life
  30. What is a mantra?
    A word or sound repeated to aid concentration in meditation.
  31. What are traits of a hardy personality?
    Who is famous for researching the topic?
    • Control
    • Controlling life events and the
    • outcomes
    • Internal locust of control
    • Commitment
    • Committed to life goals that are MEANINGFUL
    • Challenge
    • Challenged by change
    • Connectiveness
    • Social support system intact
    • Choices
    • Choices that consistently promote healthy lifestyles
  32. What is Atherogenesis?
    process of forming atheromas, plaques in the inner lining of arteries
  33. What is Atherogenesis?
    thickening of the walls of medium-sized and large arteries as a result of fat deposits on their inner lining.

    responsible for CAD
  34. What is Arteriosclerosis?
    calcification of the wall of the arteries, or hardening of the muscular wall of the arteries from chronically elevated blood pressure
  35. What are phagocytes?
    Who discovered them?
    • engulf “bad” cells
    • 1908 nobel prize: Mechnikov
  36. Who is Albert Bandura?
    • studied children: if they witness parents being aggressive towards each other they are likely to
    • mimic it
    • If children exhibit this type of behavior it must be stopped very quickly.. if not the chances of the child behaving aggressively in their life greatly increase

    If one parent demeans the other parent the children INTERNALLY process that information and it affects the children as if they are demeaning the child.
  37. What is learned helplessness?
    who is credited with popularizing the theory?
    • pessimists' view that failure is 100% their fault/responsibility and that they, as a human being, are "not enough"
    • disposition we bring to new obstacles
    • *Seligman

    OPTIMIST says "if goals are relavent it's worth continuing to try"
  38. What is hegemony?
    that a culturally diverse society can be dominated (ruled) by one social class, by manipulating the societal culture
  39. What is "one drop rule"?
    meaning that a single drop of "black blood" makes a person a black
  40. What is epoche?
    theoretical moment where all judgments about the existence of the external world, and consequently all action in the world, is suspended.
  41. What is a Phenotype?
    observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism – as determined by both genetic makeup and the environment
  42. what does WASHM stand for?
    what is it related to?
    • WORK- live to work or work to live
    • ACTIVITIES - enjoy doing; how recent
    • SUPPORT SYSTEM - meaningful communication
    • HUMOR- good for immunity, endorphins
    • METAPHYSICAL- diet, exercise and meditation
  43. what is mitology?
    • study of FUNGI
    • imp because some organisms are anaerobic
  44. what is ethnocentricity?
    • belief/idea that one race or more is superior to others
    • belief that there are more distinct differences between races than there are similarities
  45. Where is same sex marriage legal?
    • Mass.
    • Connet.
    • Iowa
    • New Hamp
    • New York
    • Vermont
    • Coquille- Oregon reservation
    • Squamish - Wash. reservation
    • Wash. D.C.
  46. What is enthicity, according to Smedley and Smedley?
    • Clusters of people who have common cultural
    • traits that they distinguish from those of other people
  47. What is race according to Smedley and Smedley?
    means of creating and enforcing social order, a lens through which differential opportunity and inequality are structured
  48. What is Critical pedagogy?
    3 stages of consciousness (magical, naïve, and critical) as they challenged inequities

    WAYS OF THINKING; relates to CRT
  49. CANCER; single cell initiation
    Abnormal cells are present only in the layer of cells in which they developed.
  50. CANCER; localized
    Cancer is limited to the organ in which it began, without evidence of spread.
  51. CANCER; regionlized
    Cancer has spread beyond the primary site to nearby lymph nodes or organs and tissues.
  52. CANCER; advanced
    Cancer has spread from the primary site to distant organs or distant lymph nodes.
  53. traits of cancer
    • relative inviability
    • high nutrient demands
    • weak attachment to surrounding tissue
    • abnormal growth and reproduction
    • lack of contact inhibition
Card Set:
KIN 169
2011-12-13 11:59:20
stress management diversity health management→→

fall 2011 SJSU diversity, stress and health management with Barbara Conry
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