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Define Gender Role
- -Gender Role identity is the image
- each individual has of himself or herself.
- -Gender Role identities develop as
- early as age 2 – due to physical differences, modeling, and biological
- -play styleslead children to prefer
- same-sex playmates by age 4 and develop gender schemas
- -Parents are more likely to react
- positively to assertive behavior in sons and emotional sensitivity in their
Explain Lowenstein's ideas about "gaps in knowledge"
- Curiosity arises when attention is focused on a gap
- in knowledge. “Such information
- gaps produce the feeling of deprivation labeled curiosity. The curious person is motivated to
- obtain the missing information to reduce or eliminate the feeling of
- deprivation. Pg 386
how do teacher responses affect the way students attribute their performance outcomes?
- may attribute their successes and failures to ability, effort, mood, knowledge,
- luck, help, interest, clarity of instructions, the interference of others,
- unfair policies, etc.
Encourage self-efficacy and self-worth.
-emphasize students’ progress in a particular area
- -Set learning goals for your students, and model a mastery orientation
- for them.
- -Make specific suggestions for improvement, and revise grades when
- improvements are made.
- Stress connections between past efforts and past accomplishments.
Why don't teachers call on poor students?
- poor students may wear old clothes, speak in a dialect or be less familiar with
- books, teacher may perceive these students as not bright. Teacher low expectations transmits to
- student and student motivation.
What is the motivation approach that deals with
- individual’s expectation of reaching a goal and the value of that goal to him
- or her.
Are girls or boys smarter?
- difference in general intelligence.
- Some tests show that girls score higher in reading and writing and boys
- score higher on math.
What was Brown vs. Board of Education about?
- Separating black and white students because of race is
What’s an “incremental” view of ability?
- Ability is unstable and
- controllable – an ever-expanding repertoire of skills and knowledge. By hard work, study, or practice,
- knowledge can be increased and thus ability can be improved.
What does “internal,” “Stable” and
- locus (location of the cause – internal or
- external to the person)
- stability (whether the cause is likely to stay
- the same in the near future)
- controllability (whether the person can control
- the cause)
What are some teacher guidelines for reducing
anxiety in the classroom?
- Use competition carefully.
- Avoid situations in which highly anxious
- students will have to perform in front of large groups.
- Make sure all instructions are clear
- Avoid unnecessary time pressures
- Remove some of the pressures from major tests and
- Develop alternatives to written tests.
- Teach students self-regulation strategies.