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change in a population's inherited characteristics or traits from generation to generation
allele frequencies change
evolutionary process by which two or more separate species arise
entire species changes to a degree that it can no longer be considered the same species.
no change in allele frequencies over time, unless...
Hardy Equilibrium a disturbing influence has occured like:
- mutations occur
- genetic drift
- migration / gene flow
- non-random mating
- natural selection
individual has 2x (at least) the number of chromosomes from one parent
- genetic code of humans and chimpanzees are 99% similar
- cannot interbred
- each individuals’ traits vary
- some traits are inheritable
- not all offspring will survive (limited resources)
- individuals with the most advantages traits will survive
the formation of two or more contemporaneous species from a common ancestor
new species form after populations are geographically isolated
new species form within a geographically continuous area
- the development of many species from 1 ancestral population
- new species evolve to occupy different niches
- individuals from 1 ancestral population diverge into new species
- different physiological traits & morphologies
- un-related species develop similar physiological traits & morphologies
- geographically isolated species
- environments are similar
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