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Six major regions of the brain
- dedulla oblongata
Regions that make up the brain stem
mesencephalon, pons, medulla oblongata
Which primary brain vesicle is destined to form the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata?
superfucial to deep; cranial meninges
- outer dura mater,
- middle arachnoid mater
- inner pia matter
What would happen if an interventricular foramen became blocked?
CSF could not flow from the lateral ventricles into the third ventricle. CSF would continue to form within that ventricle, sot he blocked ventricle would swell with fluid-hyderocephalus
How would decreased diffusion across the arachnoid granulations affect the volume of CSF in the ventricles?
less CSF would reenter the bloodstream, and CSF would accumulate in the ventricles; damaging the brain
Manhy water-soluble molecules that are relatively abundant in the blood occur in small amounts or not at all in the ECF of the brain. Why?
Blood-brain barrier-regulates movement of such molecules from the blood to the ECF of the brain
Identify the components of teh medulla oblongata that are responsible for relaying somatic sensory information to the thalamus
The nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus relay somatic sensory information to the thalamus
The medulla oblongata is one of the smallest sections of the brain, yet damage there can cause death, whereas similar damage to the cerebrum might go unnoticed. Why?
it contains many viatl reflex centers, including those that control breathing and regulate heart rate and blood pressure
4 components found in the pons
- 1) sensory and motor nuclei of cranial nerves
- 2) nuclei involved with control of respiration
- 3) nuclei and tracts that process and relay information heading to or from the cerebellum
- 4) ascending, descending, and transverse tracts
If the respiratory centers of the pons were damaged, what respiratory controls might be lost?
loss of ability to modify the rhythmicity center of the medulla oblongata during prolonged inhalation or extensive exhalation
Identify the components of the cerebellar gray matter
Components of the cerebellar gray matter include the cerebellar cortex and cerebellar nuclei
What part of the brain has the arbor vitae? What is its function
cerebellum, connects the cerebellar cortex and nuclei with cerebellar peduncles
Identify the sensory nuclei contained within the corpora quadrigemina
superior colliculi and inferior colliculi
Which area(s) of the mesencephalon control reflexive movements of the eyes, head, and neck
Main components of the diencephalon
epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus
Damage to the lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus would interfere with the functions of which special sense?
sense of sight
Which component of the diencephalon is stimulated by changes in body temperature
preoptic area of the hypothalamus,
What are the primary functions of the limbic system?
processing memories and creating emotional states, drives, and associated behaviors
Damage to the amygdaloid body would interfere with regulation of what division of the autonomic nervous system?
sympathetic ("fight or flight") division
What name is given to fibers carrying information between the brain and spinal cord, and through which brain regions do they pass?
Projection fibers link the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord, passing through the diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum
What symptoms would you expect to observe in an individual who has damage to the basal nuclei
decreased muscle tone and loss of coordination of learned movement patterns
A patient suffers a head injury that damages her primary motor cortex. Where is this located?
precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe of cerebrum
Which senses would be affected by damage to the temporal lobes of the cerebrum?
olfactory and auditory impulses
After a stroke, a patient is unable to speak. He can understand what is said to him, and he can understand written messages, but he cannot express himself verbally. Which part of his brain has been affected?
speech center, frontal lobe
A patient is having a difficult time remembering facts and recalling long-term memories. Which part of his cerebrum is probably involved?
Temporal lobe, specifically hippocampus and the amygdaloid body. also, limbic-gate for loading and unloading memories
What are cranial reflexes?
monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflex arcs that involve the sensory and motor fibers of cranial nerves. cranial reflex testing is often used to asses damage to cranial nerves or to the associated processing centers in the brain.