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What is science, its basic characteristics, and goals?
Science is a systematic approach for seeking and organizing knowledge about the natural world. Scientific investigations yield knowledge that enables one or more of three levels of understanding: Description�describing something accurately, Prediction�occurs when repeated observations reveal that two events consistently covary with each other (correlation), Control�control of natural phenomena
What is a functional relation?
Exists when a controlled experiment reveals that a specific change in one event (dependent variable) can reliably be provided by specific manipulation of another event (independent variable) and that the change in the dependent variable was unlikely to be the result of other extraneous factors (confounding variables)
What are the overarching attitudes of science?
- Determinism: universe is orderly, lawful, and systematic
- Empiricism: objective observation of the phenomena of interest
- Experimentation: controlled comparison of two phenomena (independent and dependent variable)
- Replication: reliably produce same results over time
- Parsimony: requires that all simple logical explanations for the phenomena under investigation be ruled out before complex or abstract explanations are considered
- Philosophic Doubt: continually question the truthfulness of what is regarded as fact
What is behaviorism and its main branches of study?
Behaviorism is the philosophy of the science of behavior. Its branches include Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB)�measures of frequency of response, features repeated or continuous measurement, and within-subjects experiment; and Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)�puts EAB into action, development of a technology (referring to the understanding of linkages between behavior) for improving behavior
How did applied behavior analysis get its start, develop over the years, and become known as it is today?
Psychology in the early 1900�s was dominated by the studies of consciousness, images, and other mental processes. John B. Watson�s article (1913) �Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It� stated that the proper subject matter for psychology is not states of mind or mental processes, but observable behavior. Watson coined S-R (stimulus-response) Psychology. However, it made too many bold claims about how experience is all the matters in development (Tabula rasa = individuals are born a clean slate). B.F. Skinner�s �The Behavior of Organisms� in 1938 and 1966 discussed two types of behavior. Respondent or reflexive behavior (classical conditioning) and Operant or behaviors influenced by stimulus changes that have followed the behavior in the past (three term-contingency and stimulus-response-stimulus). It formally began the experimental branch of behavior analysis. Skinner�s radical Behaviorism attempts to understand all behavior, including private behaviors (thoughts and feelings). The 1960�s brought many applications of behavior principles were made and the major area of impact was education. The 1960�s and 70�s brought many new university programs developed in ABA. 1968 was the formal beginning of contemporary ABA and the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.
What are the different types of behaviorism�how are they similar and different from one another?
- Mentalism: (not technically a form of behaviorism, but seeks to understand behavior nonetheless) assumes that there is an inner direction to behavior
- Structuralism: only study observable behavior, make no manipulations so they do not test casual factors
- Methodological behaviorism: only study observable behavior, however, do make scientific manipulations to search for functional relations between events
- Radical Behaviorism: attempts to understand all behavior, including all private behaviors
What are the defining characteristics of applied behavior analysis?
- Applied Behavior Analysis is a systematic approach to improving social significant behavior in which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are systematically applied while also demonstrating that the procedures employed were responsible for the improvement in behavior.
- Applied: investigation of socially significant behavior
- Behavioral: precise measurement of behavioral change (conduct studies of behavior not about behavior
- Analytic: demonstrating functional relations�prediction and control
- Technological: Identifying and describing operative procedures that were used
- Conceptually systematic: behavior change follows philosophy of science and its principles
- Effective: shows improvement
- Generality: behavior change lasts over time, appears in environments other than the one where intervention took place, and/or spreads to other behaviors not directly treated by intervention
- Accountable: We can study behavior change and see it
- Public: Behaviors can be seen
- Doable: not complicated; others can implement strategies
- Empowering: provides real tools that have been shown to work
- Optimistic: suggests all individuals possess roughly equal potential
Why is it important to distinguish between the terms behavior, response, and response class?
It is important to distinguish for functional analysis purposes. Behavior is the interaction with environment that is characterized by detectable displacement in space through time (movement) of some part of the organism and that results in a measurable change in at least one aspect of the environment. Behavior is usually used in reference to a larger set or class of responses that share certain physical dimensions. Response is a single instance or occurrence of a specific class or type of behavior. Response class is a group of responses with the same function (each having the same effect on the environment).
What does it mean to say behavior has a function?
There is a purpose behind the behavior; behavior�s purpose is to produce an intended effect on the environment
What effects do reinforcement and punishment have on subsequent behavior?
Reinforcement raises the frequency of future behavior and punishment decreases the frequency of future behavior.
Compare and contrast operant and respondent condition?
In operant conditioning consequences result in an increased or decreased frequency of the same type of behavior under similar motivational and environmental conditions in the future. A functional consequence is a stimulus change that follows a given behavior in a relatively immediate temporal sequence and alters the frequency of that type of behavior in the future. In respondent conditioning a stimulus-stimulus paring procedure in which a neutral stimulus is presented with an unconditioned stimulus until the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned response. This is also called classical conditioning.
What is a behavior principle and how is it similar or different than a behavior change tactic?
A behavior principle describes a functional relation between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables that has thorough generality across individual organisms, species, settings, and behaviors (how behavior works). Behavior change tactics are research-based, technologically consistent method for changing behavior that has been derived from one or more basic principles of behavior and that possesses sufficient generality across subjects, settings and/or behaviors (how applied behavior analysts put the principles to work to help people learn and use socially significant behavior).
What is the three-term contingency and why is it described as the �basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior?�
The relation between A (the setting) and B exists because of C that occurred for previous A-B relations (setting to behavior relation). Reinforcement strengthens the setting-behavior relation rather than just strengthening the behavior. This ABC relation is the three-term contingency. Operant conditioning not only establishes a functional relation between behavior (B) and its consequences (C). It also establishes a functional relationship between behavior and certain antecedent conditions (A).
How does applied behavior analysis deal with complex behavior such as verbal behaviors?
Complex behaviors take many trials and errors to understand. There are also many different measurements and methods that can be utilized.
Why is assessment a critical component of applied behavior analysis?
Assessment results in the most ethical, appropriate, and socially valid determination of target behaviors to be changed. A correct understanding of the behavior leads to better information for designing an effective intervention.
What factors should be considered when determining which behaviors should be established, strengthened, or weakened?
Habilitation and the social significance of the behavior are factors that should be considered. The following considerations can help rank order priority: threat to health or safety, frequency of behavior, length of time the problem behavior has existed, the behavior change will result in higher rates of reinforcement, the relative important of this target behavior to future skill development and independent functioning, reduction in negative attention for others, will new behavior produce reinforcement for significant others, how likely is the behavior to be successfully changes, a cost-benefit analysis.
Why is it important to use observable and measurable terms to describe behavior and intervention outcomes?
For the purposes of replication, applied behavior analysis derives its validity from its systemic approach to seeking and organizing knowledge about human behavior. Validity of scientific knowledge in its most basic for implies replication. Also, good definition increases the likelihood of an accurate and believable evaluation of a program�s effectiveness. Accurate, on-going evaluation requires explicit definition of behavior.
What is the purpose of measurement in applied behavior analysis?
Researchers measure behavior to obtain answers to questions about the existence and nature of functional relations between socially significant behavior and environmental variables. Measurement enables comparisons of a person�s behavior within and between different environments, which allows the possibility to draw empirically based conclusions about the effects of those conditions on behavior. The purpose of measurement is to answer questions, find functions of behavior, and make treatment decisions.
What are the measurable dimensions of behavior?
- Repeatability: Countability, instances the response can occur repeatedly through time
- Temporal Extent: Every instance of behavior occurs during some amount of time; the duration of behavior
- Temporal Locus: Every instance of behavior occurs at a certain point in time with respect to other events; when behavior occurs
What are the different procedures for measuring behavior?
- Event Recording: encompasses a wide variety of procedures for detecting and recording the number or times a behavior of interest occurs
- Timing: timing the duration of behavior
- Time Sampling: variety of methods for observing and recording behavior during intervals or at specific moments in time
- Whole-Interval Recording: observation period is divided into a series of brief time intervals and at the end of each interval, the observer records whether the target behavior occurred throughout the whole interval
- Partial-Interval Recording: the observer records whether the behavior occurred at any time during the interval; if the behavior occurs multiple times during the interval
- Momentary Time Sampling: records whether the target behavior is occurring at the moment that each interval ends
- Planned Activity Check (PLACHECK): uses head counts to measure group behavior, observe a group of students at the end of each time interval counts the number of students engaging in the targeted activity and records the tally with the total number of students in the group
- Measurement by permanent product: some behaviors can be measured after they have occurred with products left behind after the behavior and remain unaltered enough for the measurement to take place
How does a behavior analyst select the appropriate procedure for measuring behavior?
Describe the relative importance of validity, accuracy, and reliability of behavioral measurement?
- Validity: when measurement yields data that are directly relevant to the phenomenon measured and the reasons for measuring it
- Accuracy: refers to the extent to which the observed value matches the true state or true value of the event as it exist in nature
- Reliability: describes the extent to which a measurement procedure yields the same value when brought into repeated contact with the same state of nature
- Measurement must be valid and accurate for the data to be trustworthy
List and describe the various threats to measurement validity?
- Indirect Measurement: occurs when what is actually measured is in some way different from the target behavior of interest
- Measuring the wrong dimension of the target behavior: validity is compromised when measurement produces values for a dimension of the behavior ill suited for or irrelevant to the reason for measuring the behavior
- Measurement Artifacts: something that appears to exist because of the way it is measured
List and describe three greatest threats to the accuracy and reliability of behavioral measurement?
- Human error is the biggest threat: unintended influence of observers on the behavior being observed
- Poorly designed measurement system: Difficult measurement systems or recording multiple people, multiple behaviors, and duration of measurement intervals
- Inadequate Observer training: explicit and systematic training of observers is essential for trustworthy data
Discuss procedures used to minimize the threats to the accuracy and reliability of behavioral measurement?
Provide ongoing training to minimize observer drift, have observers who are unaware of the study�s purpose and/or experimental conditions (Na�ve Observer), separate multiple observers by distance or partition to reduce observer reactivity
Identify benefits for obtaining and presorting inter-observer agreement?
A certain level of IOA can be used for determining the competence of new observers compared to experienced observers, can be used to detect observer drift, when two or more observers consistently obtained similar data increase confidence that the definition of the target behavior was clear and unambiguous and the measurement code and system are not too difficult, if high levels of IOA variability is not due to measurement but due to actual change
List and describe the criteria for obtaining valid IOA measures?
Observers must use the same measurement system, definitions, procedures; Observers must measure the same events at precisely the same time using the same interval; Observers must be independent and not influenced by the other�s measurement
Describe the various methods for calculating IOA?
- Percentage of agreement between observers is the most common
- Compare the total count recorded by each observer per measurement period: expressed as a percentage of agreement between the total number of responses recorded by two observers
- Exact count per interval IOA: the percentage of total intervals in which two observers recorded the same count
- Trial by Trial IOA: can be calculated by comparing the observer�s total counts or by comparing their counts on a trial by trial bases
- Total Duration IOA: computed by dividing the shorter of the two durations reported by the observers by the longer duration and multiplying by 100
- Mean Duration per occurrence IOA: computing the average percentage of agreement of the durations reported by two observers for each occurrence of the target behavior
- Interval by interval IOA: primary observer record for each interval is matched to the secondary observer�s record for the same interval
- Score-Interval IOA: only those intervals in which either or both observers recorded the occurrence of the target behavior only are used in calculation
- Unscored-interval IOA: only intervals in which either or both observers recorded the nonoccurrence of the target behavior are considered when calculating
Identify the most stringent method and formula for calculating IOA for the following methods used for measuring behavioral data?
- Event Recording:
- Interval Recording/Time Sampling:
What are the benefits of graphic display and visual analysis of behavioral data?
Plotting each measure of behavior on a graph right after the observation period provides the practitioner researcher with immediate access to an ongoing visual record of the participant�s behavior, behavior change is evaluated continuously, enables the researcher to explore interesting variations in behavior as they occur, judgmental aids, devices that help the experimenter interpret the result of a study, visual analysis of graphed data takes lees time, is relatively easy to learn, imposes no predetermined or arbitrary level for determining the significance of behavior change and does no require the data to conform to certain mathematical properties to be analyzed, conservative method for determining the significance of behavior change, screening out weak variables, enable and encourage independent judgments and interpretations of the meaning and significant of behavior change, effective sources of feedback for the people whose behavior is being changed
What are the fundamental properties of behavior change over time?
Level, trend, variability
What are the different visual formats for the graphic display of behavioral data and what are the relative strengths and limitations of each visual format?
- Line Graphs:
- Bar Graphs:
- Cumulative Records:
- Semilogarithmic Charts:
What are the basic parts of a properly constructed line graph?
Horizontal Axis (x axis), Vertical Axis, the Origin, Equal-interval vertical axis (equal distances on the axis represent equal amounts of behavior), Condition Change Lines, Condition Labels, Data Points, Data path, Figure Captions
What is the purpose of visual analysis?
A systematic form of examination to interpret graphically displayed data, answers two questions: did the behavior change in a meaningful way and if so to what extent can that change in behavior be attributed to the independent variable
How is a visual analysis of behavioral data conducted?
- Within conditions: determine the number of data points, nature and extent of variability in the data, the absolute and relative level of the behavioral measure and the direction and degree of any trend in the data
- Between conditions: Level, trend, and variability between conditions
What are the basic assumptions underlying the analysis of behavior?
Behavior is determined and behavioral variability is extrinsic to the organism
What are the levels of scientific understanding?
- Description: facts about observed events that can be quantified
- Prediction: when two events consistently covary, there is a correlation. Used to predict probability that one event will occur based on the presence of another
- Control: highest level of understanding, method for isolating the relevant variables within a pattern of events
What is a functional relationship and how is it demonstrated in behavioral analytic research?
A functional relationship shows that a specific change in the dependent variable can be produced by manipulating the independent variable. And the change in the dependent variable was likely to have occurred because of other factors. Analysis of behavior has been achieved when a reliable functional relation between the behavior and some specified aspect of the environment has been demonstrated convincingly�functional relations enable ability to reliably alter behavior in meaningful way.
What is the steady state strategy?
Can be determined by repeatedly exposing subject to a condition while trying to eliminate or control extraneous influences on behavior and obtaining a stable pattern of responding before introducing the next condition
What is baseline logic?
Experimental reasoning inherent in single-subject experimental designs; entails prediction, verification, and replication
What are the essential components of experiments in applied behavior analysis research?
At least one participant, at least one behavior (DV), at least one setting, a system for measuring the behavior and ongoing visual analysis of data, at least one treatment or intervention condition (IV), manipulations of IV so that its effects on DV can be detected (experimental design)
Describe the three phases of ABA design?
A-initial baseline without independent variable, B-intervention phase with independent variable, A-return to baseline without independent variable
Discuss why reintroducing the B condition is the preferred tactic in demonstrating a functional relationship between the independent and dependent variable?
ABAB is preferred over ABA because reintroducing B enables replication of treatment effects. Most powerful within subject design for demonstrating functional relation between environmental manipulation and behavior.
Describe how an ABA reversal design incorporates baseline logic (prediction, verification, and replication)?
A: treatment 1 is compared to baseline 1, and with measures predicted by baseline1, show change occurred. B: shows verification if baseline 2 resembles baseline 1. A: shows replication of treatment resembles 1.
Discuss why a BAB design might be considered a preferable tactic in applied research?
Study ends with treatment in effect. May be appropriate with target behaviors that result in physical harm.
Identify possible limitations that may impact the analysis of a multiple treatment reversal technique?
Sequence effects: the effects on a subject�s behavior in a given condition that are the result of the subject�s experience with a prior condition
State a practical advantage to the use of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) reversal technique?
Advantageous when it is not possible or appropriate to eliminate completely the event or activity used as a contingent reinforcement.
State a rationale for using either a DRO or DRI/DRA reversal technique?
To ensure reinforcement will not immediately follow the target behavior.
State a major strength of the ABAB reversal design?
Able to provide a clear demonstration of the existence or absence of a functional relation between the independent and dependent variable.
Discuss two major limitations of the ABAB reversal technique?
Irreversibility: level of behavior observed in an earlier phase cannot be reproduced even though the experimental conditions are the same as they were during the earlier phase, Withdrawing an effective intervention could have social, educational, or ethical concerns
Describe the characteristics of an altering treatments design?
Provides experimentally sound and efficient method for comparing the effects of two or more treatments. Characterized by the rapid alteration of two or more distinct treatments while their effects on the target behavior are measured.
Describe how an altering treatments design incorporates baseline logic?
Each data point provides basis for prediction of future levels of responding under treatment, potential verification of previous prediction of performance under treatment, and opportunity for replication of previous effects produced by treatment.
What are the features of the multiple baseline designs?
Allows researchers to analyze the effects of an independent variable across multiple behaviors, settings, and/or subjects without having to withdraw the treatment variable to verify the improvements in behavior were a direct result of the application of the treatment. Used as an alternative to the reversal design in two situations: when the target behavior is likely to be irreversible and when it is undesirable, impractical, or unethical to reverse conditions
What are the features of a changing criterion design?
Used to evaluate the effects of a treatment that is applied in a graduated fashion to a single target behavior. Initial baseline phase is followed by a series of treatment phases consisting of successive and gradually changing criteria for reinforcement or punishment. Experimental control is evidenced by the extent the level of responding changes to conform to each new criterion.
What is the important of systematic manipulation of independent variables?
To ensure a change in behavior is due to the independent variable.
What practical and ethical considerations do behavior analysts need to consider when selecting an experimental design?
Is it ethical to withdraw a seemingly effective treatment to validate the results of a study.
Why is the individual subject of central importance in applied behavior analysis?
The individual is important in ABA because individual differences may be overlooked in some studies. Group data may not represent performance of individuals. An average of a study may increase, but that might be due to a few people�s scores increasing dramatically while other people had no difference in their scores. One person�s score dropping dramatically while another person�s score increases dramatically, which can cause the average to stay the same even though individual scores changes. Treatments should be understood at the level of the individual. Treatments differ from person to person so taking individual differences into account is necessary when developing experiments or treatments.
Why is it important for researchers to be flexible when designing research experiments?
Researchers need to be flexible when designing a research experiment because each experiment is unique and there is no pre-made design. Combining different tactics might be helpful, but might need to be added after an original design has been made.
How does assessment of internal validity contribute to the strength of a research experiment?
The higher the internal validity of a research experiment the stronger the experiment is. A high internal validity means an experiment demonstrates a clear functional relation. The experiment is measuring what it is supposed to measure.
What is the importance of social validity in research?
Behavior goal, acceptance of interventions, and behavior changes are all related to social importance. The client, practitioner, and society as a whole need to accept the goals, procedure, and results of an intervention in order for it to be effective. If an intervtion is not socially valid then it is unlikely to be used.
How does evaluating the external validity of a study contribute to the field of applied behavior analysis?
External validity is important because an experiment should work under different conditions and have the same effects. An experiment with high external validity contributes to the field of ABA because is allows researchers to make inferences about the population based on the results from a group design study. Whit this gernalization future studies can be formed and more information can be collected
How does evaluation of research strengthen the field of applied behavior analysis?
Evaluating research is the initial step in deciding whether data will be accepted as valid and accurate. An evaluation may lead to the replication of a study or it may cause researchers to amek changes to the study and create a new experiment. There may be errors in the data which should be examined carefully. Each evaluation of research strengthens the field of ABA because it is one of the first steps toward future research.
What is positive reinforcement and what are different types of positive reinforcers?
Positive reinforcement is a response that is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus and as a result, similar responses occur more frequently. The different types of positive reinforcers are conditioned or conditioned reinforcers, edible reinforcers, sensory reinforcers, tangible reinforcers, activity reinforcers, and social reinforcers.
What are the three- and four-term contingencies and how do they relate to the concept of positive reinforcement?
Three-term contingency is ABC. This is related to reinforcement because positive reinforcement may be a consequences of the behavior which will lead to an increase in frequency. Four-term contingency is motivating operation, discriminative stimulus, response, reinforcing stimulus. This is related to reinforcement because the reinforcement following the response in the chain will increase the frequency of that behavior.
How can positive reinforcers be identified for individuals?
Figuring out what positive reinforcers will work for an individual can be assessed with a stimulus preference assessment. This can be done by asking the target person, asking significant others, or offering a pre-task choice. The following methods can be used when asking a target person about positive reinforces: open ended questions, forced choice format, rank ordering, or surveys
Once identified, how can positive reinforcement be implemented most effectively?
The following guidelines can be used to implement positive reinforcement effectively: set an easily achieved initial criterion for reinforcement, use high quality reinforcers of sufficient magnitude, used varied reinforcers, to maintain potent establishing operations, use direct rather than indirect reinforcement contingencies when possible, combine response prompts and reinforcement, reinforce each occurrence of the behavior initially, use contingent attention and descriptive praise, gradually increase response-to-reinforcement delay, gradually shift from contrived to naturally occurring reinforcers.
What is negative reinforcement and how is it similar to and different from positive reinforcement?
Positive and negative have similar effect in that both produce an increase in responding. The key distinction between the two is based on the type of stimulus change that occurs following a response. Behavior maintained by positive reinforcement produces a stimulus that was absent prior to responding. Behavior maintained by negative reinforcement terminates a stimulus that was present prior to responding.
What are the four components of negative reinforcement contingency?
Establish operation (EO) for behavior maintained by negative reinforcement is an antecedent even in whose presence escape (termination of the event) is reinforcing. The discriminative stimulus is another antecedent even in whose presence a response is more likely to be reinforced. The response is the act that produces the reinforcement. The reinforcer is the termination of the even the served as the EO.
How is negative reinforcement similar to and different from punishment?
Negative reinforcement involves contingent stimulus termination, whereas punishment involves contingent stimulation. Negative reinforcement leads to an increase in responding whereas punishment leads to a decrease in responding.
How are escape and avoidance contingencies different?
Escape contingency is one in which responding terminates an ongoing stimulus. Avoidance contingency is one in which responding delays or prevents the presentation of stimulus.
What are the characteristics of negative reinforcement and how can it be used most effectively to promote learning?
Responses acquired and maintained by negative reinforcement. Aversive stimulation produces a variety of responses. Events that serve as native reinforcers. Important to remember stimulus describes as negative reinforcers refers to its removal because the same stimulus serves as in EO when presented prior to behavior and as punishment who present following the behavior. In an unconditioned negative reinforce, stimuli whose removal strengthens behavior in the absence of prior learning. A conditioned negative reinforce has previously neutral events that acquire their effects through pairing with an existing negative reinforce.
What is a schedule of reinforcement and what are some different schedules of reinforcement?
A schedule of reinforcement is a rule that establishes the probability that a specific occurrence of a behavior will produce reinforcement. Different schedules of reinforcement include: fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval, DRH, DRL, continuous, compound.
What is naturally occurring reinforcement and why is it important?
It is a progression to naturally occurring reinforcement. The major goal is development of naturally occurring activities, stimuli, or events to function as reinforcement.
What are the effects of various schedules of reinforcement?
A variable ratio schedule of reinforcement produces consistent, steady rates of response and usually no post reinforcement pause (as with fixed ratio schedules). The rates of response tends to produce quick rates of response. The larger the variable ratio, the higher the rate of response.
What are concurrent, discriminative, and nondiscriminative schedules of reinforcement?
Concurrent schedules of reinforcement occurs when two or more contingencies of reinforcement and operate independently and simultaneously for two or more behaviors. Discriminative schedules of reinforcement include multiple schedule (two or more basic schedule of reinforcement in an alternating schedule) and chained schedule (the basic schedules in a chain schedule always occur in a specific order of multiple schedules). Nondiscriminative schedules of reinforcement includes mixed schedules (a procedure identical to the multiple schedules, except the mixed schedule has no discriminative stimuli correlated with the independent schedules) and tandem schedule (uses a procedure identical to the chained schedule).
What influence does punishing stimuli have on behavior?
Punishment has occurred when a response is followed immediately by a stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of similar responses. Punishment is defined neither by the actions of the person delivering the consequence nor by the nature of those consequences. A decrease in the future frequency of the occurrence of the behavior must be observed before a consequence-based intervention qualifies as punishment. Reduction in response rate is often confounded by extinction effects caused by withholding reinforcement for the problem behavior.
What factors influence the effectiveness of punishment?
Immediacy, intensity/magnitude, schedule, reinforcement for the target behavior, reinforcement for alternative behaviors
What are the potential side effects of punishment use?
- Emotional and aggressive reactions: punishment in the form of aversive stimulation may evoke aggressive behavior with respondent and operant components, respondent aggression, aggressive behavior following punishment that occurs because it has enabled the person to escape the aversive stimulation in the past is referred to as operant aggression
- Escape and avoidance: a person may lie, cheat, hide, or exhibit other undesirable behaviors to avoid punishment, as intensity of the punisher increases so does the likelihood of escape and avoidance
Identify examples of positive and negative punishment?
Positive punishment occurs when the presentation of a stimulus (or an increase in the intensitiy of an already present stimulus) immediately following a behavior results in a decrease in the frequency of the behavior (Example: stubbing one�s toe). Negative punishment involves the termination of an already present stimulus (or a decrease in the intensity of an already present stimulus) immediately following that results in a decrease in the future frequency of the behavior.
What are the guidelines that should be considered for the use of punishment as an intervention?
Conduct punisher assessments to identify the least intrusive punisher assessments to identify the least intrusive punisher that can be applied consistently and safely. Use punisher of sufficient quality and magnitude. Use a variety of punishers to combat habituation and increase the effectiveness of less intrusive punishers. If the problem behavior consists of a response chain, deliver the punisher as early in the response sequence of the behavior. Punsih each occurrence of the behavior. Gradually shift to an intermittent schedule of punishment if possible. Use mediation with a response to punishment delay. Supplement punishment with complementary interventions, in particular, differential reinforcement, extinction, and antecedent interventions. Watch and be prepared for unwanted side effects. Record, graph, and evaluate data daily.
What are the ethical issues that must be addressed for punishment to be used as an intervention?
Participants have the right to safe and humane treatment. The least restrictive alternative means try less intrusive interventions first and only if they are ineffective move on to more intrusive interventions (intrude on a client�s life only as necessary to provide effective intervention). A participant has a right to effective treatment, withholding treatment from self-destructive behavior. Set punishment policy and procedural safeguards to help ensure that applications of punishment are safe, humane, ethical, and effective.
Explain the knowledge base punishment in the current body of literature?
Punishment�s natural and necessary role in learning should be recognized. Punishment occurs in everyday life as a part of a complex mix of concurrent reinforcement and punishment contingencies. More research on punishment is needed because of doubt misconceptions and incomplete knowledge.
What is negative punishment (Type II punishment), and how is it related to positive punishment (Type I punishment)?
Negative punishment is when the frequency of responding has been decreased by the removal of a stimulus (or a decrease in the stimulus intensity) immediately following a behavior. Positive punishment has occurred when the frequency of responding has been decreased by the presentations of a stimulus (or an increase in stimulus intensity) immediately following a behavior.
What are the different forms of time-out?
Time out can be nonexclusion and exclusion. Nonexclusion means that the participants are not completely removed physically from the time-in setting. Exclusion time-out is what the person is removed from the environment for a specific period, contingent on occurrence of inappropriate behavior.
What are some considerations you should make when designing a time-out program?
Some considerations you should make when designing a time-out program are the behaviors leading to, the duration of, and exit criteria for the time-out need to be explicitly stated. Practitioners must decide whether to use exclusion or nonexclusion criteria.
What is response cost?
Response cost is a form of punishment in which the less of a specific amount of reinforcement occurs, contingent on the performance of an inappropriate behavior, and results int eh decreased probability of the future occurrence of that behavior.
What are some considerations you should make when designing a response-cost program?
Considerations of response-cost should be that the practitioners should determine the immediacy of the fine, decide whether bonus-response cost is a preferred option, ensure reinforce response, recognize the potential for unplanned or unexpected outcome, avoid overusing response-cost, and keep good records.
What are some of the possible side effects of negative punishment procedures and how do these impact the ethical considerations involved in using punishment procedures?
Negative punishment can increase student aggressiveness, produce avoidance responses, affect collateral reductions of desired behaviors, and call attention to the punished behavior. These effects can be unpredictable.
What is an establishing or motivating operation?
An establishing motivation is a term for any environmental variable that alters the effectiveness of some stimuli, object, or event as a reinforce and alters the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that stimulus, object, or event. The term motivating operation has recently replaced it.
What are the different effects of motivating operations?
The different effects of motivating operations are direct and indirect effects, frequency, current effects, and future effects.
What are the different types of motivating operations?
The different types of motivating operations are unconditioned motivating operations (food, water, oxygen, sleep, etc.) and conditioned motivating operations (alter the reinforcing effectiveness of other stimuli, objects, or events but only as a result of the organism�s learning history.
How does each of the different motivating operations impact the behavior of an organism?
Unconditioned motivating operations have two motivating operations; an establishing operation with an evocative effect and an abolishing operation with an abative effect on relevant behavior. Conditioned motivating operations alter the momentary frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced (or punished) by those other events. CMO-S is a stimulus that acquires its MO effectiveness by being paired with another MO and has the same value-altering and behavior-altering effects as the MO with which it was paired. CMO-R is a stimulus that acquires MO effectiveness by preceding some for of worsening on improvement.
Define and provide examples of stimuli and stimulus classes?
Stimuli are something that affects an organism. Stimulus classes are a group of stimuli that share specified common elements along formal (size and color), temporal (antecedent or consequence), and/or functional (discriminative stimulus), dimensions.
Define and provide examples of stimulus control?
Stimulus control occurs when the rate, latency, duration, or amplitude of a response is altered int eh presence of an antecedent stimulus. A stimulus requires control only when responses emitted in the presence of that stimulus produces reinforcement.
Define and provide examples of establishing operations?
Establishing operations are a term for a motivating operation that establishes (increases) the effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event as a reinforce. An example is a food deprivation.
Define and provide examples of stimulus generalization and stimulus discriminations?
Stimulus generalization is when an antecedent stimulus has a history of evoking a response that has been reinforced in its presence; the same type of behavior tends to be evoked by stimuli that share similar physical properties with the controlling antecedent stimulus. Stimulus discrimination occurs when different stimuli doe not evoke the response.
Explain how differential reinforcement is used to establish stimulus control (discrimination training procedures)?
Stimulus discrimination training requires one behavior and two antecedent stimulus conditions. Responses are reinforced in the presence of one stimulus condition, SD, but responses are not reinforced in the presence of the other stimulus, SDelta.
Explain how stimulus control and stimulus generalization are used to produce concept formation?
Concept formation is a complex example of stimulus control that requires both stimulus generalization with in a class of stimuli and discrimation between classes of stimuli. To learn the concept, they need to be able to discriminate between the stimulus and others. They use stimulus generalization ot know that one concept can apply in different way.
Described how to use response and stimulus prompts to establish stimulus control?
Response prompts operate directly on the response (verbal, instructions, modeling, and physical guidance). Stimulus prompts operate directly on the antecedent task stimuli to cue a correct response in conjunction with the critical SDelta. Examples can be movement, position, and redundancy of antecedent stimuli as stimulus prompts.
Describe how to use response and stimulus prompt fading to transfer stimulus control to the relevant stimulus?
To transfer stimulus control to the relevant stimulus, we should provide responses and stimulus prompts as supplementary antecedent stimuli only during acquisition phase of instruction. Fading response prompts and stimulus prompts is the procedure used to transfer stimulus control from the prompts to the natural stimulus, and also to minimize the number of error responses occurring in the presence of the natural stimulus.
Define and give examples of stimulus equivalence procedures?
Stimulus equivalence procedures are define by testing for reflexivity (in absence of training and reinforcement a response will select a stimulus that is matched to itself, A=A). Symmetry (occurs with the reversibility of the sample stimulus and comparison stimulus (if A=B then B=A). Transivity (final test stimulus relation (A=C, C=A) that emerges as a product of training two other stimulu-stimulus relations (A=B, B=C).
What are the four behavior-environment relations that define imitation?
Any physical movement may be a model for imitation (the model is the antecedent for the behavior. Imitative behavior must take place within 3-5 seconds after the model. The model and the behavior must have formal similarity. The model must be the controlling variable for the imitative behavior (when that behavior is repeated in other contexts without the model as an antecedent it is NOT considered imitation).
What are the steps and decisions rules involved in imitation training?
Assess or teach the necessary prerequisite skills for imitation (attending, decreasing problem behaviors that will interfere). Select models: pick about 25 gross or fine motor movements. Pretests the responses to the models� have the learner seated attending, take the same position, put the same objects in front of you and the learner, say his/her name, and �do this,� do the model behavior, praise and reinforce responses with formal similarity to the modeled behavior ASAP, record what th response was keep pretesting until each movement has been done about three times. Dequencing the selected models: first in line are the models that the learner got right on some trials, Second in line should be the models that the learner approximated during the pretest. Finally the last tiems in the sequence should be those that the learner did not know at all. Do a pre-assessment at each training session and record responses. The learner must get a model right three times in order to remove it from it from that training session. During the training: repeat presentations of models, use physical guidance, and fade out the guidance cues gradually. Include a model in the postassessment when the learner gets it right without prompting for five consecutive trials. Postassement: present 5 previously learned models and 5 models currently included in training three times each. A behavior will be removed from training when the learner responds correctly without help to model 14 out of the 15 opportunities. Probes for imitative behavior: use about 5 non-trained, novel models thrown into the training sessions without the use of the verbal response prompt or any other guidance. This will help you tell if the learner is learning to do what the model does in general�not just the repeated items.
How ca imitation training be used most effectively?
Sessions need to be brief and active, reinforce prompted true imitations within 3 � 5 seconds, pair verbal/social attention with tangibles or schedule of preferred activity to occur after sessions, if you encounter problems with training, go back to earlier stages, keep a record of all of the responses, fade out response prompts and physical guidance, end training when goals are reached.
What is shaping and when should we use it?
Shaping systematically and differentially reinforcing successive approximations to a terminal behavior. We would use it to help a learner acquire new behaviors.
How is differential reinforcement applied in the shaping process?
In shaping reinforcement is provided for responses sharing a predetermined dimension/quality. But it is withheld for those that don�t share that quality.
How is shaping across different response topographies different from shaping within a response topography?
Shaping across topographies is when select members of a response class are reinforced. Shaping within a topography is when learners are reinforced for a change in a dimension of one response/behavior.
How can prompts be used to increase the efficiency of shaping?
Prompt for an approximation by using a verbal cue as a discriminative stimulus. Prompt through physical guidance of the desired response. Prompt with an imitative cue. Priming in these ways can help initiate early response components so that you can reinforce them and get the leaerner into the shaping sequence. Always fade prompts that are used to speed up shaping.
What are the necessary skills a trainer must have to effectively implement shaping?
Be able to recognize closer approximations to the terminal behavior. Be able to monitor the learner closely. Be able to deliver reinforcement contingent on the completion of that successive approximation. Be patient.
What are the necessary steps a trainer must take to implement shaping effectively?
Select the terminal behavior. Determine the criteria for cusses. Analyze the response class to identify possible approximations of the behavior. Identify the first behavior that you will reinforce. Eliminate interfering or extraneous stimuli. Work gradually and reinforce ALL gradual approximations. Continue to reinforce when the terminal behavior is achieved.
What are behavior chains?
A sequence of discrete behaviors associated with their own stimulus conditions where each response in the chain causes a stimulus change that is BOTH a conditioned reinforce for the previous response AND the discriminative stimulus for the next behavior in the chain.
Why are behavior chains important to understand?
We can use them to increase people�s independent living skills. They let us combine behaviors into a sequence. Chains and other procedures can be used to increase behavioral repertoires.
What is task analysis?
Breaking apart the skill into small steps in a sequence. It helps determine the sequence of steps we�ll need to chain.
How do I conduct a task analysis?
Observe a competent performer of the task, ask an expert, or perform it yourself.
What are appropriate methods for me to evaluate learner performance on task analysis?
Assess mastery level by either the single opportunity method where you assess the ability to do each behavior and the learner gets no credit after an error in the sequence or the multiple opportunity method where you assess mastery across all behaviors and allow credit for steps done correctly after errors are made.
What are the different types of chaining procedures?
- Forward Chianing: teach the chain in the natural sequence and reinforce after all the training steps have been completed
- Total Task Chaining: Training on all steps in all sessions ang giving prompts and help as needed to complete steps
- Backward Chaining: All steps are done by the trainer except for the last one and then reinforce, then when ready have them complete the last 2 steps and reinforce
- Backward chaining with leap aheads: Same as backward, but not all steps are trained you can skip training on some steps because the learner already knows them.
Is one type of chaining procedure more effective than another?
Dr. Lee likes total task chaining. The book says to consider the task analysis results, look at existing research, evaluate the function, and keep in mind the qualities of the individual.
How can inappropriate behavior chains be interrupted?
Use the behavior chain interruption strategy. Interrupt the chain at a pre-determined step so that a different behavior can be emitted by determining the initial discriminative stimulus and substituting in and Sd for an alternative behavior or for a pause
What is extinction and how does it vary (procedurally) according to the function of a target behavior?
- Extinction: reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior is discontinued (responses no longer produce reinforcement), as a result the frequency of the behavior decreases in the future (until it reaches a pre-reinforced level or ultimately ceases to occur). The use of FBA�s has allowed practitioners to distinguish clearly between the following variations of ignoring: Procedural variations: ignoring and Functional variations: withholding maintaining reinforcers. The extinction procedure needs to be matched to the function of the behavior for the intervention to work.
- Positive Reinforcement: When a behavior is being maintained by positive reinforcement, it is put on extinction when those behaviors do not produce the reinforce
- Negative Reinforcement: When a behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement, it is put on extinction when that behavior does not produce a removal of the aversive stimulus (the person cannot escape from the aversive situation)
- Automatic Reinforcement: When a behavior is maintained by automatic reinforcement, it is put on extinction by masking or removing the sensory consequences
What are some of the common misconceptions about extinction?
- Using extinction to refer to any decrease in behavior: Saying that a behavior is extinguishing (as a result of punishment or reinforcement) is misleading and incorrect in the technical use of the word
- Saying that a behavior that has reached a rate of zero is extinction is another common misuse
- Confusing forgetting and extinction: Forgetting: behavior is weakened by the passage of time with no opportunity to emit the behavior, Extinction: behavior is weakened because it does not produce reinforcement
- Confusing response blocking and sensory extinction: Response blocking (using goggles, gloves, helmets, etc. to block occurrences of responses maintained by automatic reinforcement) is not the same as sensory extinction, In sensory extinction the behavior can be emitted but there is not reinforcement, response blocking prevents the occurrence of the behavior
- Confusing non-contingent reinforcement and extinction: Extinction diminishes behavior by changing consequence stimuli, NCR diminishes behavior by changing motivating operations
What does a typical extinction curve look like?
Extinction produces a gradual reduction in behaviors to its pre-reinforcement level until stopped entirely
What is an extinction burst and Spontaneous recovery?
- Extinction burst: a general effect of the extinction procedure is an immediate increase in the frequency of the response after the removal of the positive, negative, or automatic reinforcement (the behavior may also increase in amplitude)
- Spontaneous Recovery: a phenomenon commonly associated with the extinction process is the reappearance of the behavior after it has diminished to its pre-reinforcement level or stopped entirely (it is usually short lived and limited if the extinction procedure remains in effect)
How do various variables affect resistance to extinction?
- Continued responding during the extinction procedure as resistance to extinction
- Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement: Intermittent reinforcement may produce behavior with greater resistance to extinction than the resistance produced by continuous reinforcement (behavior on a continuous schedule may diminish more quickly than a behavior maintained by an intermittent schedule), Some intermittent schedule may produce more resistant than others (variable schedules may have more resistance to extinction than fixed schedules), The thinner the intermittent schedule of reinforcement is the greater the resistance to extinction will be (to a degree)
- Establishing Operation: The strength of the establishing operation above the minimum level will influence resistance to extinction
- Number, Magnitude, and Quality of Reinforcement: A behavior with a long history of reinforcement may have more resistance to extinction than a behavior with a shorter history of reinforcement, A reinforce of greater magnitude and quality might produce more resistance to extinction than a reinforce with less magnitude and quality
- Number of Previous Extinction Trials: Successive applications of conditioning and extinction may influence the resistance to extinction (sometimes problem behaviors diminish during extinction and then are accidentally strengthened with reinforcement), Behavior may diminish quickly with fewer total responses during a reapplication of extinction
- Response Effort: A response requiring greater effort diminishes more quickly during extinction than a response requiring less effort
How does differential reinforcement function to decrease problem behavior?
Differential reinforcement entails reinforcing one response class and withholding reinforcement for another response class. Differential reinforcement consists of two components when used as a reductive procedure for problem behavior: Providing reinforcement contingent on either the occurrence of a behavior other than the problem behavior or the problem behavior occurring at a reduced rate, Withholding reinforcement as much as possible for the problem behavior. The various forms of differential reinforcement in its various forms is one of the most effective, widely known, and commonly used techniques to reduce problem behavior
What is differential reinforcement of incompatible/alternative behavior and what are the important things to consider when implementing it?
- Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI): Reinforces a behavior that cannot occur simultaneously with the problem behavior and withholds reinforcement following instances of the problem behavior
- Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA): Reinforces occurrences of a behavior that provides a desirable alternative to the problem behavior but is not necessarily incompatible with it
- Guidelines for Use: Ideally the behavior selected as the incompatible or alternative behavior would already exist in the learner�s repertoire; would require equal or preferably less effort than the problem behavior; is being emitted at a rate that will provide sufficient opportunities for reinforcement; is likely to be reinforced in the learner�s natural environment after intervention is terminated (when no behavior meeting this criteria can be identified, a practitioner can use a behavior that can be easily taught or consider a different procedure), Providing reinforcements for the incompatible/alternative behavior that have been identified as strong reinforcers (through stimulus preference assessment, reinforcement assessment, or functional behavior assessment) will increase the effectiveness of DRI/DRA, A practitioner should use a continuous schedule of reinforcement for the incompatible or alternative behavior and then transition to an intermittent schedule, To maximize the difference between the rates of reinforcement for the two response classes, a practitioner should withhold all reinforcement for the problem behavior, Because DRI/DRA interventions do not specifically provide consequences for the problem behavior, it is not commonly used as a single intervention if the problem behavior is destructive, dangerous, or interferes with health and safety. In these situations you might combine the DRI/DRA strategy with other reductive procedures such as response blocking, time-out, or stimulus fading.
What is differential reinforcement of other behavior and what are the important things to consider when implementing it?
- Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO): Reinforcement is delivered whenever the problem behavior has not occurred during or at specific times, Reinforcement delivery is determined by a combination of how the omission requirement is implemented and scheduled, The omission requirement can make reinforcement contingent on the problem behavior not occurring either throughout an entire interval (interval DRO) of time or at specific moments of time (momentary DRO), Rates can be fixed or variable
- Guidelines for Implementation: Interval DRO has been used more widely and may be more effective than momentary DRO, Variable-momentary DRO has the following advantages, It is more practical for practitioner (no need to monitor the participant�s behavior at all times), Participants obtained higher overall rates of reinforcement, Limitations of DRO, It is possible to inadvertently reinforce another inappropriate behavior, Momentary DRO reinforces is delivered contingent on the problem behavior not occurring at the end of each interval, even though the inappropriate behavior might have occurred throughout most of an interval, DRO may not always be successful and practitioners must use their data to make informed decisions, Set initial DRO intervals that assure frequent reinforcement, Do not inadvertently reinforce other undesirable behaviors, Gradually increase the DRO interval, Extend the application of DRO to other settings and times of day, Including DRO in a treatment package with other behavior-reduction procedures often yields more efficient and effective behavior change, DRO can also be added as a supplement to an intervention that has produced insufficient results
What is differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior and what are the important things to consider when implementing it?
- Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL): An intervention to reduce that rate of behavior that occurs too frequently but not eliminate it, Full-session DRL: reinforcement is delivered at the end of a session if during the entire session the target behavior occurred at a number equal to or below a predetermined criterion, Interval DRL: the practitioner divides a total session into a series of equal intervals of time and provides reinforcement at the end of each interval in which the number of occurrences of the problem behavior during that interval is equal to or below a criterion limit, Spaced-responding DRL: the practitioner delivers a reinforce following an occurrence of a response that is separated by at least a minimum amount of time from the previous response
- Guidelines for Use: Limitations of DRL: DRL is slow, it may take more time to reduce an inappropriate level than the practitioner can afford; DRL is not advisable for use with self-injurious, violent, or potentially dangerous behavior; Because the focus is on the inappropriate behavior in DRL, a practitioner must be careful not to inadvertently reinforce the problem behavior, Make sure you choose the most appropriate DRL procedure, Use baseline data to guide the selection of the initial response or IRT limits, Gradually thin the DRL schedule, The effectiveness of a DRL procedure can be enhanced by feedback to help the learner monitor their rate of responding
What is an antecedent intervention?
A behavior change strategy that manipulates contingency-independent antecedent stimuli.
What is non-contingent reinforcement (NCR)?
An antecedent intervention in which stimuli with known reinforcing properties are delivered on a fixed-time or variable-time schedule independent of the learner�s behavior. NCR can be used with positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and automatic reinforcement
What is high-probability request sequence (high-p) (Behavioral Momentum)?
The teacher presents a series of easy-to-follow requests for which the participant has a history of compliance (high-p), when the learner complies with several such high-p requests in sequence, the teacher immediately gives the target request (low-p)
What is functional communication training (FCT)?
Establishes an appropriate communicative behavior to compete with problem behaviors evoked by an establishing operation. FCT develops alternative behaviors that are sensitive to the EO�s rather than changing the EO�s.
What is self-management?
Behavior a person emits to influence another behavior. The personal application of behavior change tactics that produces a desired change in behavior.
What are the advantages and benefits of using self-management?
Self-management can be used to change behaviors with topographies that make them inaccessible to observation by others, In most treatment settings, many important responses go unnoticed by the person responsible for applying behavior change procedures, Self-management can promote the generalization and maintenance of behavior change, challenges to achieving generalized outcomes may be overcome of the learner has self-management skills, A person who learns how to apply a few self-management tactics can control a potentially unlimited range of behaviors. People of wide-ranging ages and cognitive abilities have successfully used self-management tactics. Under certain conditions self-selected contingencies can be as effective in maintaining behavior as contingencies determined by others. People with good self-management skills contribute to more efficient and effective group environments. Teaching students self-management skills provides meaningful practice for other areas of the school curriculum. Self-management is an ultimate goal of education: the development of independent, self-directed people who are capable of behaving appropriately and constructively without the supervision of others. Citizens with self-management skills are more likely to fulfill their potential and make greater contributions to society; self-management helps people behave in ways that forgo immediate reinforcers that are correlated with devastating outcomes that are so long deferred that only future generations will experience them. A person who skillfully uses self-management techniques derived from a scientific analysis of behavior-environment relations predicated on an assumption of determinism is more likely to feel free than is a person who believes that her behavior is a product of free will. Being in control of one�s life feels good.
What are antecedent-based self-management strategies, what are some examples, and how are they implemented?
- Antecedent-based self-management is the manipulation of events or stimuli antecedent to the target (controlled) behavior.
- Manipulating motivating operations to make a desired (or undesired) behavior more (or less) likely: The general strategy for incorporating an MO into a self-management intervention is to behave in a way that creates a certain state of motivation that increases the subsequent frequency of the target behavior
- Providing response prompts: Creating stimuli that later function as extra cues and reminders for desired behaviors
- Performing the initial steps of a behavior chain to ensure being confronted later with a discriminative stimulus that will evoke the desired behavior: Behave is such a way so that your future behavior makes contact with a powerful discriminative stimulus for the desired behavior
- Removing the materials required for an undesired behavior: Alter the environment so that an undesired behavior is less likely or impossible to emit
- Limiting an undesired behavior to restricted stimulus conditions: A person may be able to decrease the frequency of an undesired behavior by limiting the setting or stimulus conditions under which they engage in the behavior
- Dedicating a specific environment for a desired behavior: A person may achieve some degree of stimulus control over a behavior that requires diligence and concentration by reserving or creating an environment where they will only engage in that behavior
What is self monitoring?
A procedure whereby a person observes his behavior systematically and records the occurrence or nonoccurrence of a target behavior. Also called self-recording or self-observation.
What other types of tactics may be combined with self-monitoring?
- Self-evaluation: self-monitoring is often combined with goal setting and self-evaluation, self-evaluation entails a person comparing their performance with a predetermined goal or standard
- Reinforcement: self-monitoring is often part of an intervention package that include reinforcement for meeting either self- or teacher-selected goals
What promotes the effectiveness and success of self-monitoring?
The behavior mechanisms that account for the effectiveness of self-monitoring are not fully understood (because it consists of private, covert behaviors). It is suggested that self-monitoring is effective in changing behavior because it evokes self-evaluation statements that serve either to reinforce desired behaviors or to punish undesired behaviors. Self-monitoring less-than-desirable behavior produces covert guilt statements that can be avoided by improving one�s performance (target behavior is strengthened through negative reinforcement).
What are self-administered consequences?
Arranging to have specific consequences follow occurrences (or non-occurrences) of one�s behavior is one of the fundamental approaches to self-management. A person can increase the future frequency of a target behavior in a self-management program by applying contingencies that are analogs to positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement.
What is self-instruction and how is it utilized?
Consists of self-generated verbal responses (covert or overt) that function as response prompts for a desired behavior. These may be used to guide a person through a behavior chain or sequence of tasks.
What is habit reversal and how is it implemented?
A person is taught to self-monitor their nervous habits and interrupt the behavior chain as early as possible by engaging in behavior incompatible with the problem behavior. It is typically implemented as a multiple-component treatment package that includes self-awareness training involving response detection and procedures for identifying events that precede and trigger the repose, competing response training, motivation techniques including sel-administered consequences, social support systems, and procedures for promoting the generalization and maintenance of treatment gains.
What is systemic desensitization and how is it employed?
Involves substituting one behavior (usually muscle relaxation) for the unwanted behavior (fear and anxiety). The client develops a hierarchy of situations from the least to the most fearful and then learns to relax while imagining these anxiety-producing situations, when the person is able to go completely through the hierarchy he begins to expose himself gradually to real life situations.
What is massed practice and how is it used?
Forcing oneself to perform an undesired behavior again and again. Example of use: the woman that compulsively performed security checks of her apartment (she repeated the ritual several times when she felt compelled to check and soon quite the behavior).
What steps are necessary for conducting an effective self-management program?
Specify a goal and define the behavior to be changed. Begin self-monitoring the behavior�self monitoring the behavior before implementing the intervention gives the same benefits as taking a baseline, desired improvement in behavior may be achieved by self-monitoring alone. Contrive contingencies that will compete with natural contingencies�a person who implements a contingency that provides immediate, definite consequences for each occurrence of the target behavior greatly increases the probability of obtaining a previously elusive self-management goal. Go public with your commitment to change your behavior�this may enhance the effectiveness of the self-management program. Get a self-management partner�setting up a self-management exchange is a good way to involve another person whose differential feedback about how a self0mangement project is going can be effective as a behavioral consequence. Continually evaluate your self-management program and redesign it as necessary�the self-manager should be guided by their data and make changes as necessary
What are ethics and why are they important?
Ethics refers to behaviors, practices and decisions that address three basic and fundamental questions: What is the right thing to do, what is worth doing, what does it mean to be a good behavior analyst. Ethics are important because they produce meaningful behavioral changes of social significance, reduce or eliminate harm, ethics help practitioners to decide what is right and what is wrong.
What are standards of practice?
Professional standards are written guidelines or rules of practice that provide direction for conducting the practices associated with on organization.
What are the agencies that provide standards of practice for behavior analysts?
APA, Association for behavior analysis, and the behavior analyst certification board are th agencies that provide standards of practice.
How is professional competence ensured among behavior analysts?
Academic training, formal coursework, supervised practice, monitored professional experiemences, ABA accredidation and certification comes from the association for behavior analysis and behavior anlyst certification board.
What are some of the ethical issues that confront those who provide services to clients?
Informed consent, confidentiality, protect the clients health, diginity, and safety, helps the client select outcomes and choose behavior change targets, maintain records in a secure area, advocate for the client, embrace the scientific method as it creates evidence for an intervention, conflict of interest
When advocating for clients, what are the important considerations for the behavior analysts?
Is the presenting problem amenable to behavioral intervention, is the proposed intervention likely to be successful