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Why do practitioners use a diagnostic model?
Within this model, the student�s problems are his or hers and his or hers alone. The problem is not related to school-based variables. Practitioners believe that once they get a diagnosis, their job is done.
What is the primary purpose of a functional behavior assessment?
Identifying functional relationships
What are the advantages of using functional behavior assessment to develop treatment approaches?
FBA helps design individually tailored interventions. Because a functional analysis was performed, it increases the likelihood that the treatment will be effective.
How would you describe functional behavior assessment to a lay person?
A functional behavior assessment is the process of examining how an individual�s behaviors relate to events in the environment. The actual definition is: an investigative process that results in an understanding of why behaviors occur. FBA is a set of assessment procedures that results in the identification and description of the relationships between the unique characteristics of the individual and the contextual variables that trigger, motivate, and reinforce behavior.
What are the errors that are possible in the assessment of behavior?
- Error of association: assigning a functional relationship to two variables where there isn�t one; they are actually just associated with one another
- Recency error of perception: interviewees report the most recent occurrence of a behavior and attribute its occurrence to variables that were present during the incident; they don�t investigate frequency and antecedent conditions
- Primacy error of perception: interviewees report the initial occurrence of interfering behavior and attribute its cause to variables that were present at that time; although they may be correctly describing the initial incident of the behavior, it doesn�t always reflect what is currently happening
- Errors of misplaced precision: Occurs when the data-recording procedures were not matched to the dimensions for each target behavior
- Errors of inaccurate FBA: function of behavior was not properly determined; usually the result of not using a variety of methods and triangulating data from many sources
- Errors of exaggeration: saying a behavior �always� occurs when it actually is not happening every time the antecedent condition is present
- Errors of generalization: when you assume that the variables contributing to the interfering behaviors of student A are the same set of variables contributing to the identical behavior exhibited by student B
What is the difference between an indirect functional behavior assessment direct descriptive functional behavior assessment and functional analysis?
Indirect FBA involves review of records, behavior rating scales, social skills ratings, adaptive behavior assessments, informal interviews, and semi structured interviews. Primary purpose is to identify and describe behavior and to generate hypothesized functional relationships. Direct descriptive FBA involves collection of observational data. Purpose is to identify and describe behavior. Design an appropriate behavior recording procedure and observe and record the behavior and associated antecedent and consequence variables.
What are motivating operations (MO) and how do they influence behavior?
Overarching term to describe those antecedent variables that influence behavior change by momentarily altering the effectiveness of reinforcing consequences.
What similarities and differences between the ABC, SORC, and SMIRC conceptual models?
The SORC model expands the ABC model by including organisms or individual variables within the analysis of behavior. The SMIRC model considers the dynamic interaction among antecedent (SD and MO), individual variables, and reinforcing consequences
What is a response class and can you think of some examples in your life of a response class operating?
A response class are behaviors that look different but are alike in that they share the same antecedents and consequences
How might an indirect FBA and a direct FBA be used together?
By using a combination of interviews and direct observation procedures.
What is treatment validity and how does it relate to FBA?
Refers to whether the assessment results contribute to effective intervention. Even if an FBA yielded reliable and accurate assessment results, if the data do not contribute to the development of effective interventions then the assessment method is not considered useful.
How could the FuBARS be used?
As a formative assessment guide when conducting an FBA, and as a summative assessment tool to evaluate the completed FBA
What is the purpose of an interview as the initial stage of a functional behavior assessment?
An interview is done to get sufficient background information about the behavior and identifying behavior related characteristics.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of different recording approaches (frequency recording, duration recording, interval recording, permanent product recording, performance-based behavioral recordings, real time recordings)?
- Frequency recording: Strengths: easy to count behaviors that have a definite onset and cessation, Weaknesses: underestimates sustained behavior
- Duration recording: Strengths: easy to keep track of length of time using a stopwatch while observing continuous behaviors, Weaknesses: short-duration behaviors are difficult to observe using duration recording
- Interval recording: Strengths: whole interval provides an accurate measure of behavior , Weaknesses: underestimate/overestimate behavior depending on duration of behavior and recording method used
- Permanent product recording: Strengths: observer does not need to be present, Weaknesses: no way of knowing who completed the product
- Performance-based behavioral recording: Strengths: can provide instruction and record data simultaneously, Weaknesses: yield inaccurate results
- Real time recording: Strengths: accurate assessment of the interfering behavior, easy to use, Weaknesses: mostly used with researchers
Why is inter-observer agreement important?
Interobserver agreement increases confidence that the operational definition is correct and that the target behavior is the one being observed instead of a different behavior.
What does it mean to say that indirect functional behavior assessment is hypothesis testing approach?
The FBA process is a hypothesis-testing approach because it is an investigation process in which one is collecting information, indentifying potential relationships, collecting more data, analyzing the influences of variables, and confirming or disconfirming the hypothesis.
How does task difficulty affect behavior?
Task difficulty can affect behavior because probably the harder the task is for the student, the worse their behavior is. The easier the task, the better their behavior would be.
How does one assess the likelihood or probability that behavior will occur?
One can assess the likelihood or probability that behavior will occur by using a conditionl probability record.
What is a task analysis and how can it be used to assess a student�s behavior?
A task analysis allows us to teach and record a student�s behavior within the context of instructional programming. It can be used to assess a student�s behavior because it documents the increase of appropriate behavior and the decrease of interfering behaviors.
How is functional analysis different from a functional behavior assessment?
A functional analysis is used when other procedures have failed to identify the function. FA�s are more controlled than FBA�s and allow us to determine the functional relationship through an experimental process (Dr. Lee doesn�t like the work prove). With FA we are able to get a better idea of causation within the situation�rather than just looking at what variables/consequences correlate with the behavior naturally. FA�s are used to confirm the hypothesis. FA involves repetition and is contived, whereas FBA usually occurs in the natural setting/circumstances.
What are the differences and similarities between a structural analysis and a consequence analysis?
- Similarities: contrived experiemental, systematic, more controlled assessment allowing us to gather information about the function of a behavior, both are carefully record and graph behavior emitted, both require materials from the natural environment, and both require personnel to run the experiment and record behavior.
- Structual analysis: looks at antecedents/trigger but consequences are not delivered contingently
- Consequence analysis: provides specific consequences contingently in order to see what maintains the behavior.
What is the BAPS and how is it used to develop educational interventions?
The behavior-analytic problem-solving model is used in the identification and description of the contextual variables that contribute to the occurrence of interfering behaviors. The BAPS is used following the completion of the indirect, direct descriptive, and/or functional analysis assessments to organize and summarize the findings from the assessment. The BAPS allows you to examine the dynamic relationship among the various variables that support interfering behaviors, this information can be used as the foundation for designing function-based interventions.
How are environmental or ecological variables different from individual mediating variables?
Individual variables are a specific individual�s sensitivities or internal states that contribute to the occurrences of interfering behavior. Individual variables do not cause interfering behavior; they interact with environmental stimuli/events to produce interfering behaviors.
What is meant by response covariation and response effort?
Response covariation is observed to occur when an intervention addressing behavior A results in a change in behavior B. When a target behavior is incompatible with interfering behaviors, the increase in the target behavior is typically paired with a decrease in the interfering behavior�this is called an inverse relationship. Response effort refers to the level of difficulty involved in engaging in the behavior�the amount of energy needed to exhibit the behavior.
How are extinction and ignoring similar and yet different?
Extinction involved withholding the reinforcing consequence of a previously reinforced behavior. If attention is the function of the behavior, then extinction is ignoring. If the function of the behavior is not attention, than ignoring the behavior is not extinction. In this case, ignoring a problem behavior can actually make it worse.
How do the various parameters of reinforcement play a role in selecting a reinforment strategy for a student?
The parameters of reinforcement include the schedule of reinforcement, the quality of reinforcement, the magnitude of reinforcement, and the timing of reinforcement. To compete with the reinforcing consequences that are maintaining interfering behaviors, we need to understand them. Knowing the schedule, quality, magnitude, and timing of reinforcement provides information about the strength of the behavior consequence relationship. This information can be used to design a more powerfully reinforcing consequence to effectively compete with the reinforcement that follows interfering behavior.
Do you agree that the only good assessment is one that results in an effective intervention?
FBA�s are conducted with the primary purpose of identifying the variables that contribute to interfering behaviors with the results used to design interventions- however, linking the intervention to the analysis can be difficult. In many ways FBA�s tell us more about what not to do then what to do- ex. Don�t give attention to a behavior if the function for the behavior is attention.
How does functional behavior assessment and positive behavior support work together?
Before FBA�s interventions were done reactively to eliminate the problem behavior, but not to repolace is with a positive behavior. FBA has been transformed to include PBS. Both want to help people develop and engage in adaptive and socially desirable behaviors.
Consider the different ways that manipulating antecedent variables and consequences can change behavior?
Antecedent modification modifies the antecedents to reduce the probability of problem behavior. Teach coping skills and fix social/academic deficits. Positive/negative reinforcement can assess reinforce preferences, do a functional analysis of precursor behavior and appropriate behavior. Assess effectiveness, efficiency, and evocative effects of instructional procedures. Always evaluate effect of the manipulation of antecedents or consequences.
What to plan for your write up of an FBA?
Identifying information, reason for referral, assessment procedures, description of assessment procedures, assessment results, indentification of interfering behaviors, description of interfering behaviors, current level of occurrence of interfering behaviors, identification of antecendent and individual variables, indentification of consequence variables, parameters of reinforcement, hypothesized function, emaples that illustrate how antecent individual and conseeuqnce variables influence the interfering behavior, evidence and function based interventions,