Ecologyfinal.txt

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symonea
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123135
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Ecologyfinal.txt
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2011-12-13 11:08:16
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ecology final
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ecology final
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  1. Which of the following distribution types would be characterized by having a variance equal to the mean... clumped regular or random?
    random
  2. A species of mite climbs into hummingbird nostrils to hitch a ride from plant to plant. This does not harm or affect the hummingbird. The term for this specific type of dispersal strategy is...
    Hitchhiking
  3. A group of potentially interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated is a
    Species
  4. Provide a simple, comprehensive definition of ecology
    Ecology= organism + abiotic or biotic enviornment
  5. What are the three categories of life histories that Phil Grime suggests? explain them
    • Competitors: Few seeds, vegetative spread important
    • ruderals: High reproductive rate, high growth rate
    • stress tolerators: Reproduce relatively late, few seeds produced and prod few seeds
  6. when one specie gains while the other has no effect this is called? when on speices looses while the other has no effect is called?
    Commensalism, Ammensalism
  7. in the example of the creosote bush that showed jump disperal from south america to north america, why are there none in the rest of the americas?
    those plants are outcompeted and better suited for the desert type enviornments. there is a comeptitive trade off
  8. what are three factors that control the flux of energy?
    conductance surface area, gradient
  9. Explain the connection between native Hawaiian bird abundance and distribution, mosquitoes, and elevation in the Hawaiian islands. How does this story demonstrate the different factors determining species distributions that we have discusse
    • Mosquitos intro by humans via jump dispersal.
    • mosquitos are vector for malaria
    • native birds are infected via parasitism, they live higher up bc mosquitos cant live at those temps
    • as they become more resistant to malaria they live at lower altitudes
  10. Huffaker and Gause’s laboratory studies of predator-prey interactions show a few things that facilitate a neutrally stable interaction that the models don’t capture. Name two of them
    Refugia, heterogenity immigration and evolution
  11. explain in words what it means that the victim isocline intersects the y-axis at P
    It means that there is a specific abundance of predators that keeps the victims in check with zero population growth
  12. what are three general sections of the course and namesome of the topics within those sections
    • Single species- adaptation, distributions and pop growth
    • species interactions- competition, predation, mutulaism...
    • multiple species- communities, ecosystem, biosphere and global change
  13. who coined the term ecosystem
    ag tansley
  14. who created foodweb structure
    elton
  15. name 2 techniquesused to determine primary production
    • gas eexchage- sum of net, gross and respiration
    • harvest-determine dry mass net prod
  16. diff between local vs global nutrient cycles
    local stays mainly within system. global transferes all thoughtougt ecosystems.
  17. explain the P nutrient cycle
    run off from soil gets into the ocean or cycles around to organisms
  18. explain how plants were found to control the cycling of nutrients
    the Hubbard experiement where there were watersheds and it was determined the amount of
  19. Make a graph of the possible outcomes of NUE Nutrient uptake efficiiency
    1 is constant NUE diagnoally straight line. 2 is High NUE at low levels and just horizontal straight line and 3 is like the left side of a parabola it is Higher NUE and lower resources levles
  20. what are the main process of C cycling
    • carbon atms
    • presipitaion of C into aquatic
    • phtoto and respiration
  21. Gaia hypothsis
    eath is a self regulating system
  22. what are two strategies to decresea global change
    • Mitigation- decrease degree of climate change
    • Adaptation- decrese harm of climate change
  23. example of communities having a large amount of rare species and small amount of common speices
    moth. there were more rare caught than common
  24. what is the sequential breakage hypothesis
    the community can be broken down into niche space and then sections of diff. species are made from theere
  25. example of latitudinal gradients
    marine species in different levels of the ocean like the copepods
  26. factors causing gradients in stability
    history climate disturbance
  27. factors causing gradients in energy
    climate productivity
  28. factors causing gradients in local interactions
    • habitiat heterogenatiy
    • competition
    • predations
  29. energy is the _____ of the ecosystem
    currency
  30. organize the trophic pyramids
    producers then herbavores then carnivores
  31. how to find efficiency of production
    net/total incoming
  32. in terrestrial system what are the limiting factors to PP
    water, nutrients and temp
  33. name the most favorable conditions for PP
    high temp, high preciipation, lots of light, lots of nutrients
  34. what has the most PP of the terrestial? of the ocean
    swamps and marshes,algal beds and reefs
  35. how is seconday production produced
    herbivores carnivores
  36. Ingested -Egested=
    assimilation
  37. organisms that mainatin diversity by creating, modifying and maintiaining
    ecosystem engineers
  38. how do u relate ecosytem engineers to keystone species
    they both are low in abundance but essential to the enviroenment
  39. example of an ecosystenm engineer
    beavers
  40. inputs that are prod within... outside
    autochthonoous. allochthonous.

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