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Which of the following distribution types would be characterized by having a variance equal to the mean... clumped regular or random?
A species of mite climbs into hummingbird nostrils to hitch a ride from plant to plant. This does not harm or affect the hummingbird. The term for this specific type of dispersal strategy is...
A group of potentially interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated is a
Provide a simple, comprehensive definition of ecology
Ecology= organism + abiotic or biotic enviornment
What are the three categories of life histories that Phil Grime suggests? explain them
- Competitors: Few seeds, vegetative spread important
- ruderals: High reproductive rate, high growth rate
- stress tolerators: Reproduce relatively late, few seeds produced and prod few seeds
when one specie gains while the other has no effect this is called? when on speices looses while the other has no effect is called?
in the example of the creosote bush that showed jump disperal from south america to north america, why are there none in the rest of the americas?
those plants are outcompeted and better suited for the desert type enviornments. there is a comeptitive trade off
what are three factors that control the flux of energy?
conductance surface area, gradient
Explain the connection between native Hawaiian bird abundance and distribution, mosquitoes, and elevation in the Hawaiian islands. How does this story demonstrate the different factors determining species distributions that we have discusse
- Mosquitos intro by humans via jump dispersal.
- mosquitos are vector for malaria
- native birds are infected via parasitism, they live higher up bc mosquitos cant live at those temps
- as they become more resistant to malaria they live at lower altitudes
Huffaker and Gause’s laboratory studies of predator-prey interactions show a few things that facilitate a neutrally stable interaction that the models don’t capture. Name two of them
Refugia, heterogenity immigration and evolution
explain in words what it means that the victim isocline intersects the y-axis at P
It means that there is a specific abundance of predators that keeps the victims in check with zero population growth
what are three general sections of the course and namesome of the topics within those sections
- Single species- adaptation, distributions and pop growth
- species interactions- competition, predation, mutulaism...
- multiple species- communities, ecosystem, biosphere and global change
who coined the term ecosystem
who created foodweb structure
name 2 techniquesused to determine primary production
- gas eexchage- sum of net, gross and respiration
- harvest-determine dry mass net prod
diff between local vs global nutrient cycles
local stays mainly within system. global transferes all thoughtougt ecosystems.
explain the P nutrient cycle
run off from soil gets into the ocean or cycles around to organisms
explain how plants were found to control the cycling of nutrients
the Hubbard experiement where there were watersheds and it was determined the amount of
Make a graph of the possible outcomes of NUE Nutrient uptake efficiiency
1 is constant NUE diagnoally straight line. 2 is High NUE at low levels and just horizontal straight line and 3 is like the left side of a parabola it is Higher NUE and lower resources levles
what are the main process of C cycling
- carbon atms
- presipitaion of C into aquatic
- phtoto and respiration
eath is a self regulating system
what are two strategies to decresea global change
- Mitigation- decrease degree of climate change
- Adaptation- decrese harm of climate change
example of communities having a large amount of rare species and small amount of common speices
moth. there were more rare caught than common
what is the sequential breakage hypothesis
the community can be broken down into niche space and then sections of diff. species are made from theere
example of latitudinal gradients
marine species in different levels of the ocean like the copepods
factors causing gradients in stability
history climate disturbance
factors causing gradients in energy
factors causing gradients in local interactions
- habitiat heterogenatiy
energy is the _____ of the ecosystem
organize the trophic pyramids
producers then herbavores then carnivores
how to find efficiency of production
in terrestrial system what are the limiting factors to PP
water, nutrients and temp
name the most favorable conditions for PP
high temp, high preciipation, lots of light, lots of nutrients
what has the most PP of the terrestial? of the ocean
swamps and marshes,algal beds and reefs
how is seconday production produced
organisms that mainatin diversity by creating, modifying and maintiaining
how do u relate ecosytem engineers to keystone species
they both are low in abundance but essential to the enviroenment
example of an ecosystenm engineer
inputs that are prod within... outside
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