BIOL380 Eukaryotic Transcription

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BIOL380 Eukaryotic Transcription
2011-12-12 18:52:54
BIOL380 Eukaryotic Transcription

BIOL380 Eukaryotic Transcription
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  1. Define Transcription Unit.
    The Sequence of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA molecule.
  2. Why make an RNA copy of DNA instructions?
    • DNA can be Protected in the Nucleus.
    • RNA Copy is Smaller and is Easier to Use when Forming a Protein.
  3. What are the 3 stages of Transcription?
    • Initiation
    • Elongation
    • Termination
  4. Define the process of Transcription.
    The process of making an RNA copy of parts of the DNA.
  5. What is the Template Strand determined by?
    The Promoter-Region of DNA where the Enzyme RNA Polymerase will bind and initiate the Transcription.
  6. A Template Strand is read in which direction? 5' to 3' or 3' to 5'?
    3' to 5'
  7. RNA grows in which direction? 5' to 3' or 3' to 5'?
    5' to 3'
  8. The Promoter is located upstream or downstream of a Gene?
  9. The Promoter contains Specific Sequences where Proteins called WHAT can bind?
    Transcription Factors
  10. The Promoter contains Consensus Sequences, define Consensus Sequence.
    The most common nucleotides found at a specific location in the DNA or RNA.
  11. Define TATA box and where its located.
    TATA box is a region containing the nucleotides TATAAA and is located -25 Base Pairs upstream of the Initiation Site.
  12. RNA Polymerase II requires what in order to recognize the Promoter Region and initiate Transcription?
    Formation of Transcription Apparatus
  13. What does the Transcription Apparatus consist of?
    • Transcription Factors
    • Mediator (Complex of Proteins)
    • RNA Polymerase II
  14. What are the three important transcription factors for RNA Polymerase II?
    • TFIID
    • TFIIB
    • TFIIH
  15. What is the function of TFIID?
    Binds to DNA
  16. What is the function of TFIIB ?
    Assists in the Selection of the Start Site
  17. What is the function TFIIH?
    Has Helicase Activity to help Unwind the DNA
  18. What are two regions of the DNA that can regulate Transcription Rate?
    • Regulatory Promoter
    • Enhancer
  19. Where is the Regulatory Promoter located relative to the Core Promoter?
    Immediately Upstream
  20. What proteins need to bind to the Regulatory Promoter's consensus seuqnece so that the rate of transcription is INCREASED?
    Transcriptional Activator Proteins
  21. In regards to Regulatory Promoter, what needs to occur so that rate of transcription is DECREASED?
    Repressing Sequences bind Inhibitors
  22. Define Enhancers.
    Sequences that will increase transcription at distant genes.
  23. How do Enhancers increase Transcription?
    Activator Proteins will bind to the Enhancer Region and Associate with Proteins at the Promoter to Increase Transcription.
  24. Define Silencers.
    Sequences that INHIBIT transcription.
  25. For Elongation, nucleotides are added at which end (5' or 3') of the RNA strand?
  26. What is cleaved from a Triphosphate Nucleotide when it is added to the Growing RNA chain?
    Two Phosphates
  27. What is the rate of Elongation in Eukaryotes?
    60 Nucleotides per Second
  28. What is the specific Terminator Sequence of the RNA strand?
  29. What comes and cleaves the 3' End of the RNA strand at a Consensus Sequence?
    Cleavage Complex
  30. The Cleavage Complex cleaves the 3' end of the RNA strand normally how many nucleotides beyond the Terminator Sequence?
    10-35 Nucleotides