H&S3

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dmilne27
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H&S3
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2011-12-14 00:35:56
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History and systems exam 3
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  1. Gottfried W. Leibnitz
    • Mondadology: elements of reality, psychic entities, similar to perceptions, Mental events (composed of monads) have different degress of consciousness
    • Petites Perceptions: Lesser degress of consciousness
    • Apperception
  2. John F. Herbart
    Threshold of consciousness: below threshold = unconscious
  3. Fechner
    • (Dr. Mises)
    • Iceberg analogy
  4. Little Albert
    • Conditioned fear
    • Hammer=US
    • White Rat/Rabit=CS
  5. Rosalie Rayner
    • Watson's Assistant (little albert experiments)
    • Stutz bearcat
  6. James Mark Baldwin
    • Psychological review
    • Whore house scandal
  7. John B. Watson
    • Behavioral Psych
    • Conditioned Fear
    • Little Albert
    • Positive and Negative effects of alcohol and sex education filmes on adolescents
    • More objectivity in psych
    • Applied psyc
    • anti-introspection
    • acts: complex responses
    • instincts: socially conditioned responses
  8. Mary Whiton Calkins
    Certain processes can only be studied by introspection
  9. Mary Cover Jones
    • Developmental psychology
    • Peter
    • Removal of conditioned fear
  10. Karl Lashley
    • Studied instinct (terms in the dry tortugas with watson)
    • Brain mechanisms
    • Law of mass action: the more cortical tissue, better the learning
    • Equipotentiality: all parts of the cortex equally contribute to learning
  11. William James
    Emotion theory: the act of feeling the bodily changes that follow perception of stimuli are emotion; Watson criticized the non-objectivity
  12. Joseph Jastrow
    • Popularization of psychology (Ann Landers)
    • Keeping mentally fit
    • Plotting your life: the psychologist as helmsman (self-help)
  13. Albert Wiggam
    Exploring you mind
  14. Stephen Butler Lealock
    Psychologists...open day and night (like plumbers)
  15. Edwin B. Holt
    • Internal Drives (hunger, thirst, etc.)
    • Motivation
    • Emphasis on purpose
  16. William McDougall
    • Instinct Theory of Behavior: behavior derives from innate tendencies to thought and action
    • Free will
    • Nordic superiority
  17. The Watson-McDougall debate
    the battle of behaviorism, McDougall won on consciousness
  18. Priscilla
    • the fastidious pig
    • performed a "morning routing" at the IQ zoo
  19. Bird Brain
    A chicken that played Tic-tac-toe (beat b.f. skinner)
  20. Keller and Marion Breland
    • IQ zoo
    • Trained animals using skinnerian conditioning
    • instinctive drift
  21. Behaviorism
    • Watson
    • S-R learning
  22. Neobehaviorism
    • Hull
    • Tolman
    • Skinner
    • Learning
    • laws of conditioning
    • Operationism
  23. Neo-Neobehaviorism
    • aka sociobehaviorism
    • bandura
    • rotter
    • a return to cognitive processes
  24. Percy Bridgman
    • Precise definition of physical concepts (e.g. length)
    • won nobel prize
  25. Edward Tolman
    • Purposive behaviorism
    • Goal-oriented
    • Intervening variables
    • S-O-R
    • Expectancies
    • Sign-gestalt: cue expectancy, learned relationships
    • Latent learning
    • Cognitive maps
    • Mazes
    • Many operationally defined concepts
    • non-reinforcement theory
    • Molar
    • Goal-directed, makes use of environment
    • COGNITIVE
  26. Clark Leonard Hull
    • Monistic Reinforcement Theory
    • Mathematical formula
    • Hypothetico-deductive method
    • Primary drives (reduce pain)
    • Learned drives
    • Law of primary reinforcement
    • Law of secondary reinforcement
  27. B. F. Skinner
    • Inductive theorist
    • Single subjects
    • Just behavior
    • Operant conditioning
    • Law of acquisition
    • Anti-theory: positivism
    • Book: Behavior of the organism (book on two-factor theory)
    • baby in the box
    • Argued for teaching machines
    • ABA design
    • Remove error variance
    • Multiple baseline design
    • Single case study
    • Reinforcement schedule
    • Shaping
  28. Ivan Pavlov
    • Behavioral response
    • Theory of excitation inhibition
    • Neurosis: clash of excitation and inhibition
    • Induction: opposing force of inhibition on excitation in brain
  29. Albert Bandura
    • Social Cognitive Theory: The behavior of human subjects in interaction
    • Self activation vs. stimulus driven
    • Conscious awareness of reinforcer
    • Vicarious reinforcement
    • Modeling
    • Self-efficacy
  30. Julian Rotter
    • First to use the term "social learning theory"
    • Four Principles: subjective expectation of outcomes, estimation of likelihood that behavior will lead to reinforcement, assign relative worth differential value of reinforcement
    • locus of control
  31. Tenerife
    Island where Kohler studied apes
  32. Nueva
    • an ape
    • used a stcik to access fuit (tool use)
  33. Sultan
    • chimp
    • Kohler's problem solving experiments "two each"
  34. Chica
    • Chimp
    • Always thirsty
  35. Wundt
    • Sensory elements
    • Brick and mortar psychology
  36. Immanuel Kant
    • German Philosopher
    • Wholeness of perception
  37. Franz Bretano
    Emphasized "the act of experiencing"
  38. Ernst Mach
    • The analysis of Sensations
    • Space-form andTime-form sensations (music)
    • Orientation change not equal to perception change (i.e., a table regardless of angle)
  39. Christian von Ehrenfiels
    Gestalt Qualitaten (form qualities): cannot be explained as a combination of sensory elements (e.g., melody)
  40. William James
    • Elements of consciousness = artificial abstractions
    • Objects as wholes
  41. Phenomenology
    • A form of philosophy based in unbiased description of immediate experience just as it occurs
    • Common sense rather than trained introspection
  42. Max Planck
    Field Physics
  43. Max Wertheimer
    • Perception of Apparent Movement (stroboscope)
    • Impression of moving
    • Phi phenomenon
    • Illusion that stationary lights are moving
    • Bright walls
    • Principles of perceptual organization
  44. Principles of Perceptual Organization
    • Proximity
    • Continuity
    • Similarity
    • Closure
    • Simplicity
    • Figure/ground
  45. Kurt Koffka
    • Perception
    • The Growth of the Mind
    • Developmental child psychology
    • Principles of Gestalt Psychology
  46. Wolfgang Kohler
    • Spokesperson of Gestalt Movement
    • Gestalten (forms of patterns) exist in psych
    • The mentality of apes
    • public protest of the dismissal of jewish scholars
    • Perceptual constancies: a quality of wholess in perceptual experience that does not vary when the sensory elements change (e.g. the window)
    • Problem solving abilities
    • insight
    • cortical processes behave similarly to fields of force
  47. Robert Yerkes
    • Insight in orangutans
    • Terms "ideational learning"
  48. Kurt Lewin
    • Field theory (psychology, not physics)
    • Extends beyond Gestalt to include needs, personality, and social influences on behavior, life space, topology, motivation, social psych, group dynamics.
  49. Bluma Zeigarnik
    • The Zeigarnik effect
    • tension develops when given a task
    • tension dissipates when tasks are completed
    • if left incomplete, persistence of tension results in greater likelihood that subject will recall the task
  50. Robert Louis Stevenson
    Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
  51. Babylonians
    • Mental illness as demonic possession
    • magic and prayer
  52. ancient hebrews
    • punishment for sin
    • magic and prayer
  53. Greek philosophers
    • disordered thought processes
    • the persuasive healing power of words
  54. christianity
    • once again blamed evil spirits
    • torture and execution (the inquisition)
  55. 1700s
    • irrational behaviors
    • lunatic asylums (no treatment, chained, displayed)
  56. Juan Luis Vives
    • Sensitive and human treatment of the mentally ill
    • Language barrier
  57. Philippe Pinel
    • Mental illness is treatable by methods of natural science
    • Increased cure rates
    • Treating humans as machines that needed to be fixed
  58. Dorothea Dix
    Advocate for reform of mental institutions in US
  59. Benjamin Rush
    • First formal psychiatric practice
    • First hospital for emotional disturbances
    • rotating chairs
    • blood draining/pumping
    • ice water shock
    • head vices
    • all with good intention, as previously nothing was being done
  60. Elwood Worcester
    • The Emmanuel Movement: talk therapy with religious leaders
    • The power of suggestion and moral authority
  61. Franz Anton Mesmer
    • Animal magnetism
    • Mesmerism
  62. James Braid
    Neuro-hypnology-> hypnosis
  63. Jean Martin Charcot
    • Described hysteria
    • treatment by hypnosis in medical terminology
    • Role of sex in hysterics
  64. Pierre Janet
    • Hysteria is a mental disorder caused by memory impairments, fixed ideas, and unconscious forces
    • treated with hypnosis
    • scientific study
    • dreams
  65. Bernheim
    • Suggestive therapeutics
    • book on hypnotism
  66. Darwin's influence
    • humans are driven by love and hunger
    • sex as a basic motivation
  67. Adolf Patze
    Sex drive in children age 3
  68. Kraft-Ebing
    Psychopathia sexualis
  69. Albert Molle
    Child's love for opposite sex parent (pre-freud)
  70. Sigmund Freud
    • defense mechanisms
    • birth trauma
    • free association
    • resistances
    • repression
    • dream analysis
    • libido
  71. Carl Koller
    Anesthetic use of cocaine
  72. Josef Breuer
    • Introduced Freud to his patient Anna O.
    • The talking cure
    • Transference
    • Studies on hysteria with Freud
  73. Anna O
    • Severe hysteric complaints (somatic and psychological)
    • catharsis
    • shut up and listen: this story is all psychoanalytic myth
  74. Id
    most primitive and least accessible, sex, aggressive instincts, pleasure principle, libido
  75. Ego
    mediator between id and external world, reason or tationality, follows reality principle, the rider on the horse
  76. superego
    • assimilated rules of conduct from parents (learned through reinforcement and punishment), represents morality, two subdivisions (conscience, ego-ideal).
    • ego-ideal: behaviors that are acceptable and bring rewards
  77. Objective anxiety
    fear of actual dangers in the real world
  78. neurotic anxiety
    fear of potential dangers in gratifying the id (i.e., punishment for impulses)
  79. Oral stage
    optimism to sarcasm and cynism
  80. Anal stage
    expulsive vs retentive
  81. phallic stage
    oedipus complex, superego development
  82. latency
    relative absence of sexual focus
  83. genital stage
    heterosexual behavior
  84. Anna Freud
    • child analysis
    • ego psychology
    • object relations theory
  85. Melanie klein
    • The intense bond between mother and child (first 6 months)
    • Social and cognitive terms (not sexual)
    • Mother's breast (first part-object)
  86. Heinz Kohut
    • The nuclear self: the foundation for becoming an independent person
    • Self-objects: people so vital that we believe they are part of ourselves
    • Mother: primary self-object--acts as a mirror
  87. Carl Jung
    • Analytical psychology (inner growth vs. interpersonal relationships)
    • Unconscious mind
    • Collective Unconscious
    • The personal unconscious
    • Experiences are grouped into Complexes
    • Archetypes: innate determinants present in the collective unconscious
    • Persona: the mask
    • Anima/Animus: opposite sex
    • Shadow: our darker self
    • Introversion vs Extroversion
  88. Myers & Briggs
    Type indicator (designed to measure Jung's psychological types)
  89. Hans Eysenck
    • Incubation Theory: conditioned fear stimulus becomes strengthened over time in the absence of further exposure.
    • Maudsely Personality Inventory (designed to measure Jung's attitudes)
    • Edited version of Wolpe's work, Salter's work, etc. "Behavioral Therapy"
  90. Alfred Adler
    • Individual Psychology: Behavior is determinded largely by social forces
    • Social interest: innate potential to cooperate
    • Inferiority complex
    • Lifestyle
    • Creative power
  91. Karen Horney
    • Basic anxiety: Isolated/helpless in a potentially hostile world
    • Basic instinct: drive to seek security, safety, and freedom from fear
    • Womb envy: jealousy of ability to give birth
    • Neurotic Needs
    • Idealized self-image
  92. Abraham Maslow
    • Self-actualization
    • Needs
  93. Carl Rogers
    • Person-Centered Therapy
    • Positive Regard
    • Conditions of worth
    • Unconditional Positive Regard --> Self actualization
  94. Martin Seligman
    • Call for Positive Psychology
    • Authentic happiness
    • Biological preparedness
    • Depression caused by expectation of bad events, efforts taken to prevent it through avoidance
    • Learned helplessness
    • Moved theory toward attribution
    • Seligman and Johnston: Cognitive theory of avoidance, expectancy of fear
  95. Rudolf Carnap
    Called for a return to introspection, awareness as observation
  96. Jean Piaget
    Cognitive development
  97. George Miller
    • Psycholinguistics
    • Chunking
    • Processing information
    • Cognition in title of Harvard Lab
  98. Jerome Bruner
    Established center for cognitive studies with Miller at Harvard
  99. Ulric Neisser
    Published Cognitive Psychology, the "Father" of cognitive psych
  100. Babbage and Hollereth
    Created early calculating machines
  101. ENIAC
    the first giant computer
  102. Alan Turing
    The Turing Test: can a person tell that they are communicating with a CPU
  103. John Searle
    Objected to Turing Test, the Chinese Room problem (no understanding)
  104. Deep Blue
    The machine that beat Gary Kasparov
  105. David Buss
    A founder of Evolutionary Psychology (William James used the term first)
  106. Harry Harlow
    Furry monkey experiment
  107. Edward O. Wilson
    • Sociobiology
    • Genetic influences may be more important than cultural ones
    • Genetic endowment
  108. Andrew Salter
    • Wrote book "Pavlovian Conditioning" therapy based on CC
    • Assertive training. Argument whether he or Wolpe started it
  109. Thorndike
    • Psych as study of behavior
    • Law of Effect
    • Connectionism
    • Sense impressions and impulses to action creates BOND
    • Stamping in and out
    • Law of exercise
    • Motivation
    • Belongingness
    • Trial and error learning
    • Problem box
    • Three inch line, draw with eyes closed
    • 3 books on educational psychology
  110. Guthrie
    • First cognitive theorist
    • Contiguity
    • Trial and error learning
    • S-S (all you need it two stimuli together)
    • *Stimulus and a movement
    • Movement induced stimuli (motion memory)
    • Parsimonious but hard to test
  111. Fraz Alexander
    • Insight Oriented Therapy
    • Freud's psychology could be understood in behavioral terms
  112. Greg Kimble
    • Wrote standard learning textbooks
    • Encouraged behavioral psychologists for applying theory to treatments
  113. Breyer and McGaugh
    Extension of learning principles
  114. Kalish
    First behavioral therapy grad programs at stonybook
  115. H. Shoben
    Counterconditioning framework: demeanor of therapist calmed patioent counterconditioning for fear
  116. Dollard and Miller
    Translated Freud's theory in standard learning terms in their book
  117. Lindsely
    Skinner
  118. Gordon Paul
    Token economy
  119. Wolpe
    • Interpreted Hull's theory
    • Systematic desensitization
    • Cats weren't getting fears extinguished
    • SUDS
    • Muscle relaxation
    • Attempt to get away from Freud's and cognitive constructs through operational definitions
    • Burned books when Lazarus started useing cognitive terms
  120. Lazarus
    • Book on systematic desensitization
    • Eventually moved to cognitive explanations
  121. Cyril Franks
    First editor of Journal of Behavior Therapy
  122. Francine Shapiro
    • EMDR
    • Emanates from Hull, went to Wolpe, went to Levis
    • Exposure
  123. Mowrer
    • Hull, 2 factor learning theory
    • Freud first thought that clinical symptoms were a stress response, realized that symptoms were actually functional
    • Sympathetic nervous system
    • Answered two paradoxes: How is first response learned, and how does it get strengthened
  124. Peter Lange
    • self-report didn't correlate w/ behavior
    • Didn't support Mowrer's idea of a unitary construct of fear
  125. Solomon
    • Student of Mowrer
    • Still conditioning going on with avoidance
    • Used traumatic shock with dogs in shuttle box
    • kept responding quickly for tons of trials
    • Partial Irreversibility Hypothesis: traumatic experiences stay in the brain and function as CSs
    • Conservation of Anxeity Hypothesis: fear will maintain unless it gets exposed to permit full extinction
  126. Neurotic Paradox
    neurosis is self-perpetuating and self-defeating
  127. Preparedness theory
    • why do human phobias include animals, heights, dark, etc?
    • We're genetically predisposed to fear certain things.
    • Alt. expl. = discrimination learning- we learn what we did wrong and learn to do something different next time
  128. Plausible explanation for the neurotic paradox
    • Stampfl
    • Maximize Solomon's conservation of anxiety paradox
    • Trauma is encoded, maintains the content of the affective cues
    • Networks of cues that create fear and avoidance response.
  129. Joe Cautella
    • Covert conditioning therapies
    • Covert sensitization
  130. Murray
    Needs
  131. Sheldon
    Ectomorph, endomorph
  132. Alderanc?
    birth trauma
  133. Goldstein
    organized self
  134. Murphy
    biosocial
  135. Cattell
    trait theory
  136. Fromm
    Escape of freedom
  137. Implosive therapy 4 cue categories
    • Symptom contingent: verbally reported, assoc with symptom onset
    • Verbally reported: more emo indicates the cue is right
    • Hypothesized cues: what it sounds like
    • Dynamic cues: that's right. Don is dynamic.
    • Stampfl: serial CSs
  138. Donald Dewsbury
    Is psychology losing it's foundation? CBT what is it?

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